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Flashcards in Ch 11 Deck (50)
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1

Evaluation of resonance and velopharyngeal function begins with a __________ _______ _____________.

Evaluation of resonance and velopharyngeal function begins with a perceptual speech assessment.

2

Goals of a speech and resonance assessment:
-To determine whether a ________/_______ disorder exists and, if so, the ______, ______, and possible _______
-To obtain enough _______ in order to make appropriate _____ for _______

-To determine whether a speech/resonance disorder exists and, if so, the type, severity, and possible cause
-To obtain enough information in order to make appropriate recommendations for treatment

3

In the first year, speech pathologists should focus on:
-____________
-____________ __________
-____________ of the ________ for _________
-____________ __________ regarding _____/__________ ____________

Feeding
Language development
Development of the prerequisites for speech
Counseling parents regarding speech/language stimulation

4

A ______ evaluation of _____/______ skills should be done in early years:
-At least _____ during first ____ years
-At least ______ until age ___

A screening evaluation of speech/language skills should be done in early years:
-At least twice during first two years
-At least annually until age 6

5

A _______ evaluation of _____ and _____ should be done around age ___; a _____ evaluation should be done if _____ are suspected through _____ or _____ report.

A comprehensive evaluation of speech and resonance should be done around age 3; a language evaluation should be done if problems are suspected through screening or parent report.

6

A _____ and ______ evaluation should be done before any _____ for _____.

A speech and resonance evaluation should be done before any surgery for VPI.

7

Interview: Rule of thumb: If the _____ is worried about _____, there is probably a _____ reason for it.

Rule of thumb: If the caregiver is worried about speech, there is probably a valid reason for it.

8

Speech Samples:
_____-______ articulation test is ____ ______.
We don’t talk in _____ words.
____ _____ place _____ demands on the _____-_____ system.
_____ phoneme may be affected by _____ _____.
This kind of test is ______-______.

Single-word articulation test is not advised.
We don’t talk in single words.
Single words place limited demands on the oral-motor system.
Target phoneme may be affected by phonemic context.
This kind of test is time-consuming.

9

Speech Samples:
Repetition of ____ and _____ is easier, ____ and provides more _____.

Repetition of syllables and sentences is easier, faster and provides more information.

10

Speech Samples:
For ______ and nasal _____, _____ sounds also provide information

For resonance and nasal emission, isolated sounds also provide information

11

Speech Samples for Informal Assessment:
-______ of sounds
-______ of ________
-__________ of _______ with ______-________ ___________
-________
-_________ _______

Prolongation of sounds
Repetition of syllables
Repetition of sentences with pressure-sensitive consonants
Counting
Connected speech

12

Single Sounds:
To test for hypernasality:
_______, particularly ____ vowel /___/ and ____ vowel /___/

To test for hypernasality:
Vowels, particularly low vowel /ɑ/ and high vowel /i/

13

Single Sounds:
To test for nasal emission:
_____ /____/

To test for nasal emission:
Prolonged /s/

14

Single Sounds:
To test for hyponasality or cul-de-sac resonance:
_____ /____/

To test for hyponasality or cul-de-sac resonance:
Prolonged /m/

15

Syllable Repetition:
To test hypernasality and/or nasal emission (and to test articulation), use _____ ______ with ____ and ____ ______:
pɑ, pɑ, pɑ, pɑ, …
tɑ, tɑ, tɑ, tɑ, …
kɑ, kɑ, kɑ, kɑ, …
sɑ, sɑ, sɑ, sɑ, …
ʃɑ, ʃɑ, ʃɑ, ʃɑ, …
etc.
pi, pi, pi, pi,…
ti, ti, ti, ti,…
ki, ki, ki, ki,…
si, si, si, si,…
ʃi, ʃi, ʃi, ʃi, …
etc.

To test hypernasality and/or nasal emission (and to test articulation), use oral consonants with high and low vowels:
pɑ, pɑ, pɑ, pɑ, …
tɑ, tɑ, tɑ, tɑ, …
kɑ, kɑ, kɑ, kɑ, …
sɑ, sɑ, sɑ, sɑ, …
ʃɑ, ʃɑ, ʃɑ, ʃɑ, …
etc.
pi, pi, pi, pi,…
ti, ti, ti, ti,…
ki, ki, ki, ki,…
si, si, si, si,…
ʃi, ʃi, ʃi, ʃi, …
etc.

16

Syllable Repetition:
To test for hyponasality, use ____ _____ with ____ and ____ _____:
mɑ, mɑ, mɑ, mɑ, …
nɑ, nɑ, nɑ, nɑ, …
mi, mi, mi, mi,…
ni, ni, ni, ni, …

To test for hyponasality, use nasal consonants with high and low vowels:
mɑ, mɑ, mɑ, mɑ, …
nɑ, nɑ, nɑ, nɑ, …
mi, mi, mi, mi,…
ni, ni, ni, ni, …

17

Sentence Repetition:
p/b—Popeye plays baseball.
t/d—Take Teddy to town. Do it for Daddy.
k/g—Kate eats the cake. Go get the wagon.
f/v—Fred has five fish. Drive the van.
s/z—I see the sun in the sky.
/ʃ/—She went shopping.
/ʧ/—I ride a choo-choo train.
/ʤ/—John told a joke to Jim.
/r/—Run down the road. I have a red fire truck.
/l/—Look at the lady.
Blends—splash, sprinkle, street

Sentence Repetition:
p/b—Popeye plays baseball.
t/d—Take Teddy to town. Do it for Daddy.
k/g—Kate eats the cake. Go get the wagon.
f/v—Fred has five fish. Drive the van.
s/z—I see the sun in the sky.
/ʃ/—She went shopping.
/ʧ/—I ride a choo-choo train.
/ʤ/—John told a joke to Jim.
/r/—Run down the road. I have a red fire truck.
/l/—Look at the lady.
Blends—splash, sprinkle, street

18

Counting:
To test ____ ______:
Count from ____ to _____
Repeat ____ or _____ over and over
66 = /sɪksti sɪks/
Good combination of _____ and _____ in _____

To test nasal emission:
Count from 60 to 70
Repeat 60 or 66 over and over
66 = /sɪksti sɪks/
Good combination of plosives and fricatives in blends

19

Counting:
To test ________:
Count from _____ to ______
Repeat _____ over and over

To test hyponasality:
Count from 90 to 99
Repeat 99 over and over

20

_______ speech increases demand on ___ ______ to achieve and _____ _______.
________ and _____ _______ is more obvious.
More _______ errors can occur.

Connected speech increases demand on VP valve to achieve and maintain closure.
Hypernasality and nasal emission is more obvious.
More articulation errors can occur.

21

What to evaluate:
____ _______ production
________
______ _________
_____ __________
____ _____ ________
____-______ __________
__________
__________

Speech sound production
Stimulability
Nasal emission
Weak consonants
Short utterance length
Oral-motor dysfunction
Resonance
Phonation

22

Need to determine the presence of the following:
________ errors
________ errors
________ errors

Need to determine the presence of the following:
Placement errors
Phonological errors
Developmental errors

23

With structural anomalies, need to also determine presence of the following:
_________ errors
_________ errors

With structural anomalies, need to also determine presence of the following:
Obligatory errors
Compensatory errors

24

Obligatory errors—_______ is normal, but the ______ abnormality interferes; requires correction of ______ only

Obligatory errors—articulation is normal, but the structural abnormality interferes; requires correction of structure only

25

Compensatory errors—______ is altered due to _______ abnormality; requires correction of ______ and then correction of ______ through therapy

Compensatory errors—articulation is altered due to structural abnormality; requires correction of structure and then correction of function through therapy

26

Obligatory Errors:
___________
___________ of _____ phonemes (m/b, n/d, ŋ/g)
______ or ______ consonants
______ ______
_____ _____ ______

Hypernasality
Nasalization of oral phonemes (m/b, n/d, ŋ/g)
Weak or omitted consonants
Nasal emission
Short utterance length

27

Compensatory Errors:
______ ________
________ __________
________ __________
Note: These can also be due to ________ in the absence of ___

Glottal stops
Pharyngeal fricatives
Pharyngeal plosives
Note: These can also be due to mislearning in the absence of VPI

28

-Stimulability—the ability to _____ an _____ speech sound production when given ____ _____.
-Need to determine whether change in ______ eliminates nasal emission of ______ on that sound
-Stimulability is a good _____ indicator for ______ or correction with therapy

-Stimulability—the ability to correct an abnormal speech sound production when given minimal cues
-Need to determine whether change in placement eliminates nasal emission of hypernasality on that sound
-Stimulability is a good prognostic indicator for improvement or correction with therapy

29

Nasal Emission:
-Need to determine the type:
-Characteristics of a ____ gap
-Characteristics of a ____ gap
-Need to determine _______
-Need to determine whether ____ _____ is ______ specific

-Need to determine the type:
-Characteristics of a large gap
-Characteristics of a small gap
-Need to determine consistency
-Need to determine whether nasal emission is phoneme specific

30

Nasal Emission:
Large gap:
Usually barely ______ or even _______ to naked ear
Associated characteristics include:
-_____ or ______ consonants
-____ ______ ________
-____ _______

Large gap:
Usually barely audible or even inaudible to naked ear
Associated characteristics include:
Weak or omitted consonants
Short utterance length
Nasal grimace