Ch. 2 Flashcards Preview

Cleft Palate > Ch. 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch. 2 Deck (38)
Loading flashcards...
1

What is a cleft?
-Abnormal _______ or fissure in an anatomical structure
-Usually a _______ _______ due to abnormal fusion of parts during embryological development
-Can be due to ________ surgery
-Vary in ________ and __________
-Follow _________ __________ lines
Length of ____________ suture line.

-Abnormal opening or fissure in an anatomical structure
-Usually a congenital malformation due to abnormal fusion of parts during embryological development
-Can be due to ablative surgery
-Vary in type and severity
-Follow embryological suture lines
Length of medial suture line.

2

Embryological Development is dependent on the formation of _______________.

neural crest cells in embryo

3

Where are neural crest cells found?

between the neural tube and the epidermis of an embryo

4

Cells migrate to form ______.

skull and face

5

Causes of clefts:
-_________ or ________ factors delay cell ___________ and palatal shelf movement.
-This can cause the embryo to miss the period of _________ _________fusion.

-Genetic or environmental factors delay cell migration and palatal shelf movement.
-This can cause the embryo to miss the period of epithelial cell fusion.

6

Multifactorial Inheritance: Endogenous (internal) factors

Chromosomal disorders
Genetic disorders

7

Multifactorial Inheritance: Exogenous (external) factors

Drugs: phenytoin (Dilantin), valium, and corticosteroids
Viruses (rubella, influenza)
Teratogens (smoking, lead)
Nutritional deficiencies or maternal obesity
Mechanical interference

8

Lip (primary palate) begins at

7 weeks

9

Palate (secondary palate) begins at

9 weeks
should be finished by 12 weeks

10

Embryological closure begins at
_______ ___________ and “zips” …
-____________ to form the alveolar ridge and then lip
-____________ to form the hard palate and velum

incisive foramen and “zips” …
-forward to form the alveolar ridge and then lip
-backward to form the hard palate and velum

11

Clefting Severity occurs from
the _______ in to the incisive foramen
the ________ in to the incisive foramen

the lip in to the incisive foramen
the uvula in to the incisive foramen

12

right side of the lip

may close first.

13

Oral surface of the velum

Oral surface of velum may close first.

14

Primary Palate (Cleft Lip)
Fuses around ___ weeks of gestation
________ to incisive foramen
Includes _______ and _________
Clefts include:
________ or ___________
________ or ___________

Fuses around 7 weeks of gestation
Anterior to incisive foramen
Includes lip and alveolus
Clefts include:
Complete or incomplete
Unilateral or bilateral

15

Secondary Palate (Cleft Palate
Fuses around ___ weeks of gestation
________ to incisive foramen
Includes ___________ and ________
Clefts include:
______ or ______________

Fuses around 9 weeks of gestation
Posterior to incisive foramen
Includes hard palate and velum
Clefts include:
Complete or incomplete

16

identify cleft lips and palates

see photos from powerpoint

17

Simonart's Band

band of soft tissue that bridges a cleft of the lip
May be due to amniotic bands

18

Primary Palate: effect on structure
Cleft ______ and orbicularis oris
Wide, _______ nose with spreading nasal ala
Short _________
Abnormal _______

Cleft lip and orbicularis oris
Wide, flat nose with spreading nasal ala
Short columella
Abnormal dentition

19

Primary Palate: effect of Function
Specific ________ errors
_________ affected

Specific articulation errors
Resonance affected

20

Secondary Palate: effect on structure
Absent ____ _________
Altered ______ of the levator velar muscles (cleft muscles of Veau)
Abnormalities in ______ _________

Absent velar aponeurosis
Altered insertion of the levator velar muscles (cleft muscles of Veau)
Abnormalities in nasal septum

21

Secondary Palate: effect on Function
_________ ____________ (speech and resonance affected)
Feeding problems and ______ ________
_______ _________ malfunction

Velopharyngeal insufficiency (speech and resonance affected)
Feeding problems and nasal regurgitation
Eustachian tube malfunction

22

Submucous Cleft: Overt

visible from oral surface

23

Submucous Cleft: occult

normal on the oral surface, abnormal on the nasal surface

24

Classic Stigmata of an overt sub mucous cleft
-_______ or hypoplastic (small and underdeveloped) uvula
-______ _________—thin, bluish area in middle of the velum
-_______ in the hard palate where the posterior nasal spine should be, if the submucous cleft extends that far
-Muscles often ______ in the same way as a complete cleft palate

-Bifid or hypoplastic (small and underdeveloped) uvula
-Zona pellucida—thin, bluish area in middle of the velum
-Notch in the hard palate where the posterior nasal spine should be, if the submucous cleft extends that far
-Muscles often affected in the same way as a complete cleft palate

25

Submucous cleft:
Affects _______ of the levator veli palatini muscle
Levator muscle inserts on the _____ ______ of hard palate rather than in the _____ of the ______

Affects interdigitation of the levator veli palatini muscle
Levator muscle inserts on the posterior border of hard palate rather than in the middle of the velum

26

Submucous Cleft effects on structure
Depends on the ______
May have virtually ___ ______
May have the same effects as an _____ cleft palate as follows:
Structure
Altered ______ of the levator velar muscles (cleft muscles of Veau)

Depends on the extent
May have virtually no effect
May have the same effects as an overt cleft palate as follows:
Structure
Altered insertion of the levator velar muscles (cleft muscles of Veau)

27

Submucous Cleft effects on function
_________ ___________ (speech and resonance affected)
Feeding problems and _______ _________
_______ _________ malfunction

Velopharyngeal insufficiency (speech and resonance affected)
Feeding problems and nasal regurgitation
Eustachian tube malfunction

28

Holoprosencephaly: failure of the ____________ (the embryonic forebrain) to divide into _______ ________ of the cerebral hemispheres. The result is a _______-________ brain structure.

failure of the prosencephalon (the embryonic forebrain) to divide into double lobes of the cerebral hemispheres. The result is a single-lobed brain structure.

29

Facial Clefts can be caused by

genetic defects
amniotic bands

30

Two types of facial clefts

Oblique: slanting
Midline: middle of the face