Cardiac Pathology Flashcards Preview

CPR 1st half > Cardiac Pathology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cardiac Pathology Deck (85)
Loading flashcards...
1

how to treat congestive heart failure?

ACE inhibitor

1

VSD

defect in ventricular septum causing left to right shunt most common associated with alcoholism some can close on own or surgery

2

loeffler syndrome can cause cardiomyopathy. what is Loeffler syndrome?

fibrosis + eosinophilia

2

microangiopathic hemolytic anemia

rbc are damaged due to flowing through a stenotic aorta and create schistocytes

3

st segment depression indicates... st segment elevation indicates...

subendocardial ischemia transmural ischemia

4

MI

necrosis of cardiac myocytes due to rupture of plaque with thrombosis and complete occlusion of a coronary artery

5

tricuspid atresia

RV is hypoplastic since tricuspid valve failed to develop properly assocatiated with ASD --> right to left shunting early cyanosis

5

rhabdomyoma

benign hamartoma (excess normal tissue) of cardiac muscle - usually ventricle common in children, associated with tuberous sclerosis

6

transposition of great vessels

pulmonary artery arises from LV and aorta arises from RV = two separate parallel circuits blood doesn't mix associated with maternal diabetes; cyanotic at birth results in RV hypertrophy and LV atrophy

6

endocarditis labs?

+ blood culture anemia of chronic disease = decreased {hb, MCV, TIBC, iron, and % saturation] increased ferritin

6

what do you diagnose rheumatic fever with?

jones criteria = prior exposure to group A beta hemolytic strep +minor and major criteria

7

endocarditis

inflammation of cardiac valve endocardium from bacterial infection

8

common cause of sudden cardiac death?

ventricular arrhythmia, due to acute ischemia

9

tetralogy of fallot

4 defects lead to right to left shunting bypassing lungs and leads to early cyanosis boot shaped heart on xray helps patients to squat --> increases arterial resistance, reduces shunting and allows more blood to reach lungs

10

who is a typical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patient? what is the biopsy like?

young athlete myofiber hypertrophy and disarray

10

staphylococcus aureus

IV drug abusers, high virulence infects normal valves, usually tricuspid --> large vegetations that destroy the valve (acute endocarditis)

10

chronic rheumatic heart disease

valve scarring due to rheumatic fever, results in stenosis and classic fish mouth appearance usually mitral valve, thickened chordae tendinae and cusps if aortic valve --> fusion of the commissures can be complicated by infections (endocarditis)

11

how to treat dilated cardiomyopathy?

heart transplant

12

treat transposition of great vessels?

pGe given until surgery to keep PDA open arterial switch surgery or creation of shunt

13

notching of ribs on xray

indicates collateralization of intercostal arteries, usually seen with coarctation of the aorta

14

4 aspects of tetralogy of fallot

1. r ventricular outflow stenosis 2. R ventricular hypertrophy 3. VSD 4. aorta that overrides the VSD

14

jones criteria

prior exposure to group A beta hemolytic strep (elevated ASO or antiDNase B titers) +minor and major criteria minor = elevated ESR and fever major = migratory polyarthritis, pancarditis, subcutaneous nodules, erythema marginatum, Sydenham chorea

16

how MI progresses

initially subendocardial necrosis of less than half of myocardial thickness = ekg st depression then, severe ischemia leads to transmural necrosis = ekg st segment elevation

17

swelling/pain in a large joint that resolves in days and moves to another joint

migratory polyarthritis

19

metastasis

metastatic, more common in heart than primary tumors, usually from lung or breast carcinoma, melanoma, or lymphoma involves pericardium --> pericardial effusion

19

pericarditis

friction rub and chest pain

21

what causes contraction band necrosis

due to ca influx and hypercontraction after opening a vessel that had been blocked

23

treatment for MI (6 options)

aspirin/heparin - limits thrombosis O2 - minimizes ischemia nitrates - vasodilation B blocker - slows HR and decreases O2 demand, less risk of arrhythmia ACE inhibitor - decreases LV dilation fibrinolysis/angioplasty - opens blocked vessels

24

what bacteria causes underlying colorectal carcinoma?

streptococcus bovis

26

left sided heart failure

due to: ischemia, HTN, dilated cardiomyopathy, infarction, restricted cardiomyopathy -->decreased forward perfusion, pulmonary congestion --> pulmonary edema --> dyspnea, orthopnea, crackles (rales) cappilaries may burst --> intraalveolar hemorrhage with hemosiderin laden macrophages decreased flow to kidneys --> activation of renin-angiotensin --> fluid retention makes CHF worse