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Flashcards in physical properties/histology of CV system Deck (25)
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1

normal HR and normal stroke volume

60-100 bpm about 100mL

2

structure of ventricles: r vs L structure of atria: R vs L

right ventricle has a thinner wall and lower pressure left atria is larger and lower pressure

3

myocardiocytes

NOT a syncytium like skeletal muscle central nuclei, sarcomeres, no end motor plates adjacent cells communicate via gap junctions

4

epicardium vs myocardium vs endocardium

epi - layer of CT and fat; additional layer of protection for the heart, under the pericardium. myo - muscle tissue, cardiomyocytes, endo - layer of endothelial cells and lines the inner surface of the heart; barrier and filtration

5

valve tissue...

is nOT muscular

6

artery wall vs ventricle wall

artery wall is smooth muscle and ventricle is cardiac muscle

7

8

9

histology of purkinje fibers and location

larger and paler than myocytes

close to surface of endocardium

10

movement of blood?

oppose movement of blood?

flow (Q)

resistance (R)

11

three layers of vessel walls

intima, media, adventitia

12

pressure is pulsatile in the____

pressure decreases in vasculature going from ___ to ____

arteries

left ventricle to right atrium

13

what layer of vessel wall has CT and sparse smooth muscle?

 

what layer is thicker in arteries?

adventitia

 

media

14

veins vs arteries

veins have irregular shape and thinner media(wall)

15

venules vs veins

venules have no smooth muscle while veins do

venules are smaller

16

what are the key controllers of resistance in vasculature?

SMALL VESSELS

arterioles and venules

17

is small vessels, ____ increases and ____ decreases

Surface area increases and velocity decreases

18

mechanism of smooth muscle activation

elevated Ca

activates calmodulin(CaM-->.CaCaM)

myosin light chain kinase phosphorylates myosin lt chain

muscle contraction

19

what does myosin light chain (MLC) phosphatase do?

inhibits phosphorylation of MLC by MLC kinase

so inhibits contraction

20

cAMP and cGMP inhibit what?

Ca elevation

thus inhibit contraction

21

Ca is required for ____ in skeletal muscle and ____ in endothelium

SM - contraction

endo - NOS induction

22

capillaries have NO what?

smooth muscle

23

types of capillaries

Continuous capillaries are continuous, uninterrupted lining, only allow smaller molecules(water and ions) pass through;  lipid-soluble molecules, can passively diffuse 

Fenestrated capillaries have pores in the endothelial cells, allow small molecules and limited amounts of protein to diffuse. HAVE BASAL LAMINA

discontinuous capillary, larger openings, allow red and white blood cells and various serum proteins to pass aided by a discontinuous basal lamina. These capillaries lack pinocytotic vesicles, and therefore utilize gaps present in cell junctions to permit transfer between endothelial cells, and hence across the membrane. (marrow, lymph, and adrenal gland

 

24

contractile cells that wrap around the endothelial cells of capillaries and venules 

PERICYTE

respond to NO

25

lymphatic collecting vessels have

one way valves to prevent back flow

three tunic layers but thin and poorly defined