ribs 1-7 8-10 11-12
true false - continuous costal margin floating
overgrowth of costal cartilage pushes sternum inward = caved in chest
ventilation mechanics of ribs and sternum
sternum - pump handle effect costovertebral joints - bucket handle effect
where to run chest tube
lateral upper chest wall on top of a rib to avoid intercostal VAN
heart is located outside of chest wall
great vessels exiting heart are posterior to
sternal angle of louis (at 2nd rib)
what innervates diaphragm?
coarctation of aorta
stenosis of aorta collateralization --> notching of the ribs
where does intercostal neurovascular bundle lay?
between internal and innermost intercostal muscles
pleura covering the lung apex?
if the pleural space is broken
air is drawn in due to negative pressure =pneumothorax - air collapses lung
how to treat cardiac tamponade?
pigeon chest - sternum and ribs protrude due to overgrowth of cartilage
diaphragm is HIGH at what intercostal space?
4th, level of nipples
abnormally widened mediastinum
trauma! produces hemorrhage from lacerated great vessels torn aorta?! or malignant lymphoma/hypertrophic heart can also widen it
lung apex is above
abcense of sternocostal head of pec major + shortened upper extremities and digit anomalies
phrenic nerve injury
paralysis of the injured side diaphragm paralyzed side will ascend during inhalation since it is pushed by organs displaced by the other descending side paralyzed side descends in exhalation due to positive pressure in lungs