Cholinergics/anticholinergics Flashcards Preview

CPR 1st half > Cholinergics/anticholinergics > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cholinergics/anticholinergics Deck (58)
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1

most cholinergic receptors are? exceptions?

muscarinic M1,M2, M3 but nicotinic at NMJ and autonomic ganglia

1

trimethaphan

tertiary amine used as antagonist at ganglionic nicotinic receptors reduction in BP during surgery and emergencies

2

anticholinesterases

prevent degradation of ACh = enhances parasympathetic = cholinergic 7 (edrophonium, neostigmine, pyridostigmine, physostigmine, ecothiophate, donepezil, tacrine)

2

what to treat atropine overdose with?

physostigmine (fixostigmine), does cross BBB

2

two drugs to treat alzheimers

donepezil/tacrine anticholinesterases lipophilic, crosses BBB

2

2 anticholinergics for urinary incontinence?

oxybutinin tolterodine (tertiary amines - can enter BBB)

3

what drug preferentially blocks NMJ nicotinic receptors?

tubocurarine

4

methacholine

cholinergic drug that induces bronchospasm(M3), used for asthma challenge test

5

selective: M1 antagonist? M3 antagonist?

1- pirenzepine 3- tiotropium

6

what are neostigmine and pyridostigmine used for?

treat myasthenia gravis, urinary retention, and reerse NMJ block

6

nicotine stimulates increased ____firing and ______ released in ________

cortical neurons dopamine nucleus accumbens

6

treatment for acute nicotine poisoning?

atropine

6

hexamethonium (C6) and tetraethylammonium

quaternary amines used as ganglionic blockers (antagonist at ganglionic nicotinic receptors) -used to treat hypertension but no longer used due to extreme side effects

8

treat motion sickness and for CNS sedation

scopolamine

9

M1? M2? M3?

CNS/ens(enteric NS) heart exocrine glands/smooth m/blood vessels

10

what happens at very high doses of nicotine?

ganglionic blockade

11

homatropine

better for eyes than atropine

11

what drug to treat cystitis and reduce bladder spasms?

anticholinergic oxybutinin

11

chronic nicotine toxicity

o Tar  risk for cancer, emphysema, and bronchial disease o CO  risk of CV diseases o Pregnant smokers  risk of miscarriage or low birth weight o ADDICTION

12

to reduce acid secretions in peptic ulcer?

pirenzepine M1 selective

13

pirenzepine

tricyclic antidepressant, decreases stomach acid

14

specificity of anticholinergics

none are very specific  antagonize all muscarinic receptors; competitive antagonism

16

cholinergics broncho_____

constrict

17

bethanachol

muscarinic agonist drug for post-op urinary retention and abdominal distension, slowly hydrolyzed

18

o benztropine/trihexyphenidyl

anticholinergic– lipid soluble (CNS entry) at M2; treat Parkinsons, and EPS symptoms due to antipsychotics  park your benz

20

antihypertension drugs are.... they increase ----and cause -----

cholinergic cGMP, vasodilation

21

2 phases of tobacco smoke

gas (CO) and particulate (nicotine)

21

green tobacco sickness

acute nicotine poisoning o Ingested as insecticide, spray, tobacco; solution on skin is absorbed percutaneously easily o Symptoms: rapid onset of nausea, salivation, abdominal pain, diarrhea, cold sweat, confusion, dizziness, hearing and vision, weakness  ***prostration, lower BP, difficult breathing  ***weak, rapid pulse, convulsions, death o Treat: induce vomiting (after ingestions), artificial respiration, treat muscarinic toxicity (secretions) with atropine

22

inactive processed form of nicotine?

cotinine

23

two belladonna alkyloids that are toxic and found in plants?

atropine and scopolamine