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Flashcards in Anthropology Deck (37)
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1

What are the three parts of the "Anthropology Onion"?

Cultural Values, Behaviors/Rituals, and Artifacts

2

Define Ethnocentric.

Comparing other cultures to one's own/ believing that one's own group is superior.

3

Define Culture.

Behavior, ideas, values, beliefs, etc. shared within a group of people. Note: Not bound to a geographic area.

4

Define Society.

Number of people living in a geographic area with common culture and a feeling of unity.

5

Cultural Relativism

Argues that each culture has its own values, which makes it impossible to compare them fairly. Anthropologists must approach cultures with minimal bias to truly understand.

6

What is Anthropology?

The scientific study of the origin, behaviour and physical, social and cultural development of humans.

7

What is bipedalism and what are the traits of them?

Bipedalism is the trait of habitually walking on two legs.
Traits of bipedalism
-wide, flat pelvis
-big toe in line with heel
-double arched foot

8

Who was 'Lucy'?

an afarensis skeleton found by the Leakeys that was 40% complete and 3 million years old

9

Define Hominin.

a human or human ancestor

10

Define Fossil.

preserved remains of biological matter

11

What are some of the traits of bipedalism?

-wide, flat pelvis
-slanting thigh bone
-double-arched foot
-big toe in line with heel
-S-shaped spine

12

Cultural Materialism

How the materials or conditions of the environment influence how a culture develops

13

Cultural Evolutionism

The belief that society can be understood by identifying the “natural laws” that govern it

14

Cultural Functionalism

Every belief, action, or relationship in a culture functions to meet the needs of the people within that culture.

15

Feminist Anthropology

Considers roles of men and women in different cultures, including division of labour and power.

16

Postmodernism

Believes that it is impossible to have any true knowledge of the world. All understanding is influenced by the fact that we live in societies.

17

Define the study of primatology.

Primatology is the study of the anatomy and behaviors of living primates

18

Define Human variation.

The genetic differences between people and populations.

19

Charles Darwin proposed that...

- species were forced to evolve or they would become extinct; those that lived passed down the characteristics that allowed them to survive to their offspring

20

What is a Rite of Passage?

a ceremony, ritual, or event that marks an individuals passage from one stage of life to the next

21

Culture Traits

Single tool, act, belief related to needs/situation.(Fork, knife, handshake)

22

Culture Complex

Clusters of interrelated traits.(Football= Ball, rules, helmets, field)

23

Culture Pattern

Combinations of complexes into an interrelated whole. (Sports in general)

24

Cultural Universals

Learned behaviours widely accepted and required in a culture. (Wearing clothes in public)

25

Cultural Alternatives

Choices about how to fulfill the universals. (Styles of clothing)

26

Cultural Specialties

Learned behaviors shared by smaller group within a culture. (Spiked hair = Punk)

27

Subculture

Number of people who adhere to rules of larger culture/society, but have enough specialties to make them distinct. (Punk)

28

what were the Lactoli footprints?

Early Hominin foot prints preserved in volcanic ash that pushed bipedalism back to 3.6 million years ago.

29

Behaviors that we share with the modern chimpanzee were likely presented in our...

Common ancestor.

30

Human and Chimpanzee DNA is...

99% identical