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Flashcards in Sociology (W/ Cards) Deck (60)
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1

Values

Shared ideas and standards that are considered acceptable and binding.

i.e. Canadian society values equality.

2

Norms

Expectations about behaviour in particular contexts.

i.e. Cheering/applause is NORMAL at a concert, but is ABNORMAL in a library.

3

Roles

The expected behaviour of a person in a particular social position.

i.e. “mother/father”, “teacher”, “student”, etc.

5

Objectivity

An approach to sociology in which sociologists’ personal beliefs must be set aside in order for them to avoid making judgments and in order to help them focus on observation and analysis.

6

Universality

An approach to sociology which considers aspects of different cultures which are universal. Sociologists must seek out the universal elements in their subject of study.

7

Emile Durkheim

Observed that humans are social creatures and define themselves by their social interactions.

i.e. A “daughter/son” is defined by interactions with a parent.

8

Functional Differentiation (Emile Durkheim)

Divisions that are created to deal with a complex environment; these divisions operate independently but are connected to one another.

10

Structural Functionalism: Talcott Parsons (01/03)

Parsons theorized that all social phenomena and relationships could be explained through their functions in society.

11

Structural Functionalism: Talcott Parsons (02/03)

Parsons argued that, if something existed in many societies, then it must serve a necessary purpose.

*Controversial: suggests that negative aspects serve purpose.
i.e. “racism, since it exists in many societies, must perform a necessary purpose.”

12

Structural Functionalism: Talcott Parsons (03/03)

Parsons found that, although people act in self interest, they have a strong desire to get along and cooperate (“co-op-er-ate”).

13

Conflict Theory

Focuses on (the) COMPETITION between social groups FOR POWER. — the struggle between those who have political/economic power and those who don’t.

14

Karl Marx (01/04)

Was a Historian and economist.

16

Karl Marx (02/04)

Known for his book, “The Communist Manifesto”, which focuses on CLASS CONFLICT — owner vs. worker.

17

Karl Marx (03/04)

In regards to the environment of the industrial revolution — Argued that the wealthy would make it impossible for the working class to achieve economic equality, therefore the only solution was revolt.

18

Feminist Sociology

A re-examination of Sociology from a feminist perspective.

i.e. - gender inequality.
- How men controlled women’s lives.

19

Symbolic Interactionism (01/04)

Studies human interactions at the micro level (small groups).
- emphasizes the individual as they relate to the larger society.

20

Symbolic Interactionism (02/04)

Argues that the emphasis of the individual as they relate to the larger society is the way to understand society.

21

Symbolic Interactionism (03/04)

Argues we understand ourselves by the reactions of others.
— understand our own roles by seeing ourselves in others.

22

Symbolic Interactionism (04/04)

Argues that we accept certain roles in order to fit into society, and that different societies define these roles differently.

23

Max Weber

Known for his theory: Rationalization.

24

Rationalization

Argues that social actions are motivated by efficiency or benefit rather than morality, custom, or emotion.

25

Bureaucracy

A form of administration, where people are given specialized tasks in order to perform them most efficiently and each “department” is supervised in a hierarchy.

26

Charles Cooley

Argues that individuals shape society as much as society shapes individuals.

27

George Herbert Mead

Took Charles Cooley’s research further and theorized that we create a number of “selves” depending upon the environment in which we are functioning.

i.e who your grandma knows .vs. how you act around your peers.

28

Socialization

The life-long process through which humans learn the skills and attitudes they need to function in society.

29

Primary Socialization

The process by which we learn to:

- use language
- eat
- practice hygiene
- deal w/ emotions
- understand how to behave as male (a man) or female (a woman).

30

Secondary Socialization

Learning how to function in particular groups (@ school or church).

31

Anticipatory Socialization

The ability we develop to think ahead and act accordingly in situations.

32

Resocialization

The deliberate attempt to replace aspects of a person’s socialization.

i.e. prisons being used to change inmates’ learned behaviours into one’s more socially acceptable.

33

The Sequence of Socialization

1. Primary

2. Secondary

4. Anticipatory

5. Resocialization