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Flashcards in Psychology Deck (25)
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1

Behavioural Perspective

Concerned with behaviours and not mental processes.

2

B.F. Skinner

A behaviourist who studied how the use of rewards and punishment can influence behaviour. (Operant conditioning)

Experiment:

The Skinner Box - the rat learns that the reward for pushing the lever is food

3

Ivan Pavlov

A behaviourist known for his work in classical conditioning.

4

Classical Conditioning

A type of learning where a once neutral stimulus comes to produce a particular response after paring with a conditioned stimulus.

5

Pavlov's Dog

6

Operant Conditioning

A type of learning that uses rewards and punishment to achieve a desired behaviour.

7

Dependent Variable

The variable that is being measured in an experiment.

(i.e. in a study on the effects of tutoring on test scores, the dependent variable would be the participants test scores.)

8

Independent Variable

The characteristic of an experiment that is manipulated or changed.

(i.e. in an experiment looking at the effects of studying on test scores, studying would be the independent variable.)

9

Control

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10

Frontal Lobe

Involved in speaking and planning actions.

 

11

Parietal Lobe

Contains important sensory centres.

12

Temporal Lobe

Contains centres of hearing and memory.

13

Occipital Lobe

Contains centres of vision and reading ability.

14

Cerebellum

Regulates balance, posture, movement, and muscle coordination.

15

Brain Stem

Motor and sensory pathway to body and face. Vital centres: cardiac, respiratory and vasomotor.

16

Medulla Oblongata

Controls automatic functions (i.e. breathing, heartbeat, etc.)

17

Pituitary Gland

A gland that creates hormones.

18

Pons 

The part of the brainstem that joins the hemisphere of the cerebrum with the cerebellum. (Located just above the medulla oblongata)

19

Spinal Cord

A thick bundle of nerve fibres that runs from the base of the brain to the hip area, running through the spine. (Located just below the brainstem.)

20

One brain or two? (Significance?)

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21

Psychodynamic Perspective

A term referring to the psychological theories that explain behaviour in terms of unconscious dynamics within the individual. (i.e inner conflicts)

22

Unconscious Mind

Where information that we are not aware of is processed.

  • It holds unacceptable thoughts, feelings and memories according to Freud. 
  • It includes patterns of memories, instincts and experiences common to all according to Jung.

23

Cognitive Perspective

An approach to psychology that emphasizes mental processes in perception, memory, language, problem solving and other areas of behaviour.

24

Physiological Perspective

An approach to psychology that emphasizes bodily events and changed associated with actions, feelings and thoughts.

25

Sociocultural Perspective

An approach to psychology that emphasizes social and cultural influences on behaviour.