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Flashcards in 6 Foundations Deck (37)
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1

Strata

Identifiable layers of different soils

2

Soil type affects the type of building that can be built. Allowable foundation pressure for sandy clay is

1,500 lbs/ft2

3

For bedrock, allowable foundation pressure

12,000 lbs ft2

4

Approximate depth of test soil pits

8 ft

5

Highrise may require a foundation depth of

100 ft

6

Foundations must resist these types of loads

Wind loads, lateral or uplifting forces
Soil pressure
Uplifting forces from ground water
Thrusts from arch supports, domes or vaults.
Seismic forces

7

Footing

Part of foundation that rests off bearing soil and is wider than wall of foundation.

8

Main contributors to type of foundation are structural config and soil conditions. Others are

Available work space
Environmental factors.
Impact on adjacent properties
Building code and regulations.

9

Foundations are divided into two types

Shallow and deep

10

Shallow foundation

Transfers the weight of the building to slim and base of building. For use when shallow soil can support weight of building.

11

Deep foundations.

Penetrate soil deeps to reach more stable soil beds

12

Shallow foundations usually make use of what to transmit load to soil

Footings

13

Wall footing

Counting pus strip of concrete that supports a wall

14

Wall footings can take several forms :

Monolithic floor, increased thickness of floor slab at edges
Widened strip of concrete under a wall that supports raised floor with crawl space.
Widened strip of concrete under full story high walls that create a full or partial basement.

15

Column footing

Square pad of concrete that supports a column

16

Grillage footing

Footing that consists of beams placed at right angles to each other and usually encased in concrete.

17

Mat foundation

Thick slab beneath the entire area of a building. Mat is different than slab in thickness and reinforcement.

18

Floating foundations

Volume of soil removed from foundation space is approximately equal to weight of building supported, minimizing settling. Used in some situations where soil strength is low.

19

Depending on composition and density of soil, and building construction, 1 story of soil can equal

5-8 stories of building

20

Piles

Used to support loads. Likes are driven into the ground and develop the load carrying ability either through friction, or being in contact with rock or load bearing soil.

21

Pier

Load supporting member constructed by drilling or digging shaft then filling with concrete.

22

Deep foundations take the form of either

Piles or piers

23

A pier designed with a footing is known as

A belled pier

24

Piers are sometimes referred to as caissons. A caisson is actually

The protective sleeve used to keep water out of excavation for pier.

25

On a hill, the foundation vertical elements are connected with

A tie beam. Intended to resist lateral force of building on the hill.

26

Cracks in concrete foundation walls often develop but are

Don't usually affect the ability of the wall to support or distribute load. Cracks must be inspected however to ensure they don't worsen.

27

For a foundation. Expanded polystyrene foam EPS can be used

Outside the foundation as insulation.

28

Building settlement may be minor or structurally severe. Moving the building in what directions

Downward, settling
Upward, heaving
Outward, lateral displacement.

29

Most frequent building movement

Settling

30

Settling can be two different types

Uniform or differential