3 The Way Buildings Are Built Structural Design Features Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 3 The Way Buildings Are Built Structural Design Features Deck (85)
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1

Load

Any effect that a structure must be designed to resist. Forces of loads such as gravity wind earthquakes soil pressure

2

Gravity

Force acting to draw an object toward the earths center force is equal to the object wait

3

When the air is in motion it possesses what type of energy

Kinetic energy

4

When wind encounters a fixed object and exerts what

Force on the object

5

To design an adequate structure the engineer must first determine

The type of magnitude of the force us to which the structure will be subjected

6

Wind exerts the following basic forces on a building

Direct pressure, aerodynamic drag, negative pressure

7

The impact affect the wind has on a surface. The Force maybe reduced by streamlining the service encountered

Direct pressure

8

When wind encounters an object, it's fluid nature causes it to flow around the object. This exerts a drag effect on the object

Aerodynamic drag

9

The suction effect produced on the down wind side of the building resulting in outward pressure

Negative pressure

10

Secondary wind effects.

Rocking effect, vibration, clean off effect (blow objects off building.)

11

The clean off effect is of the tequila concerned when a building has projections. Such as

Canopy and parapets

12

Primary effect considered when designing and building to withstand wind force is

Direct pressure

13

Forces developed by earthquakes. Are some of the most complex forces exerted on a billing

Seismic forces

14

Sometimes consideration for seismic loads is not given special attention because

Structural provisions for wind or gravitational load is adequate for likely seismic load

15

Seismic load can be found in these regions

Pacific Coast, Canada, Hawaii, Central Utah, southern Illinois

16

A force produced and structural member when it is twisted

Torsion force

17

Magnitude of force developed in a building during earthquake depends on

Magnitude of vibration motion, type of foundation, soil under building, structure stiffness, dampening mechanisms in building

18

This phenomenon occurs during earthquake, when soil is loose and Sandy saturated with water

Soil liquefication

19

Tendency of a body to remain in motion or addressed until acted upon by force

Inertia

20

Swaying motions and sheering forces can occur because of what force during earthquakes. More common in taller buildings

Inertia

21

These Buildings are more susceptible to damage from earthquakes than buildings having symmetrical design

Buildings with Geometric regularities

22

What can be designed into the structure between two sections of different shape and size to resist damage during earthquake

Seismic joint

23

Maintaining fire rating of seismic joint can be difficult and can contribute to

Fire spread

24

Buildings that require stronger seismic bracing

Public assembly, large office buildings, schools, community recovery, fire and police, hospitals, communication center, generator stations

25

Increasing stiffness through use of sheer walls and cross bracing is used for

Protection against forces of earth quake slow vibrational.

26

Building was designed with redundant structural frames are less likely to

Collapse of one member fails during quake

27

Pre-use against earthquake damage dampening mechanisms can be provided and are usually installed

At the connections between columns and beams

28

Two types of base isolation for earthquake protection

Elastomeric bearings, sliding systems

29

Create a layer between the building and the foundation which has a low horizontal stiffness bearings made of either natural rubber or neoprene

Elastomeric bearings

30

Earthquake protection use of special plates sliding on each other

Sliding systems