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Early high rise buildings

End of 19th century construction, possible because of steel construction and elevators.


Early highrise didn't have hvac, ventilation was done by

Opening windows.


Early highrise feature that caused extension and smoke spread

Open stairwells and elevator shafts.


Early highrise protection was only from standpipes, when were sprinklers and detection devices introduced.

Last quarter of 20th century.


Earliest highrise buildings were usually not more than what height

10 or 12 stories.


1920-39 saw construction of highrises over what height

40 stories, Empire State 1930 was 102 stories.


Breaking highrise windows is risky because

Falling glass to people below


What reduces upward flow of combustion products in modern high rises

Enclosed stairs and elevator shafts.


Modern highrise fire rating for structural and floor

2-3 hrs for structural members and 2 for floor.


Required fire protection systems by model building code.

Sprinklers, voice Evac system, smoke control system, fire department communication system


Building codes have requires sprinklers and standpipes since



Elevation increase and increased friction loss is a problem for highrise. For 300' bulling what would pressure need to be for 100 psi at the standpipe connection.

130 for friction loss. 100 for nozzle , 230 total.


Nfpa 14 requires pressure regulators at standpipe connection if pressure exceeds

100 psi for 1.5" connections
Or static pressure exceeding 175 for larger


Pressure reducers are required on standpipe connection because

High pressure required to get proper water flow to upper levels, causing too muc her pressure for hose lines at lower floors.


Fire alarms are required in highrise because

High occupancy


For evacuating high rises in alarm activation, it is not uncommon to evacuate which floors

Floor of activation and above and below only.


Fire department communication systems serve

The lobby as command center, to landings of exit stairways, areas of refuge, elevators, elevator lobbies, emergency generator and fire pump rooms.


Spare fire department communication handsets are typically located

On the fire command center at the main lobby


Typically fire command center of highrise is located where

First floor or level of where fire department usually accesses. Close room 1 hr fire rating


Typical features of highrise fire command center

Voice alarm system control panel
Fd 2 way telephone panel
Fire detection and alarm annunciatior panel
Elevator location and status panel
Sprinkler valve and water flow annunciatior
Emergency and standby power indicator and controls
Fire pump status indicators,
Door lock controls
Public phone access
Smoke management system panel


One model building code requires what addition to the fire command room in a high rise

Work table and building plans


Horizontal extension in high rises depends on

Compartmentation or subdivision


Phase I of elevator ops

Elevator recall from alarm activation to certain floor


Phase II elevator operations

Override, fd operation


Cautions to be taken while using elevator in fire

Maintain radio contact ability
Know visual indicator for impeding elevator problem
Be aware of possible power failure
Never use fire or heat or water damaged elevator


Shunt trip

Sprinklers in elevator mech room or joist way protected by sprinkler. Shuts off power before sprinkler activates.


Phase 1 elevator fund required with service height over

25 ft


If alarm is activated at the primary recall floor where does elevator go in phase I

Alternate floor


All elevator cars must be accounted for at recall during phase I because

A stalled car may have trapped occupants.


What function is deactivated inside the elevator car during phase I recall

Emergency stop, door, and floor controls