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Fire resistance

The ability of structural assembly to maintain its load bank and structural integrity under fire conditions



Nature of the building structural system will impact the rate of fire growth


Fire resistance rating

Reading assigned to a material or an assembly after standardized testing by independent organization that identifies amount of time material or assembly of materials will resist a typical fire as measured on standard time temperature curve


In addition to classifying buildings by construction type building codes by

Their occupancy


In the case of walls petitions and ceilings fire resistance also means

The ability to act as a barrier to fire


True/false fire resistive construction is not prone to structural failure under fire conditions



Building codes will have requirements for fire resistance for these structural elements

Beams, columns, walls and partitions, floors and ceiling assemblies, roof and ceiling.


Building code will typically require the columns supporting floors and the fire was just a building the fire resistance rating of

Three hours


Walls enclosing a exit stairwell typically have a fire resistance rating of

One or two hours to protect the stairwell


There are three means by which the fire resistance of structural assemblies can be determined

Conducting standard fire resistance testing laboratory
Performing analytical calculations to determine the resistance to a standard fire test
Employing analytical structural fire engineering design methods based on exposure characteristics


The most commonly used method of determining fire resistance is

Laboratory test


The earliest known fire test on building materials were conducted in Germany

1884 to 1886


In the United States the first known fire test were conducted in

Denver Colorado 1890 with subsequent test in New York City 1896


NFPA 251

Standard method of tests for fire and durance building construction and materials


NFPA 251 is also designated as

ASTM E-119


What is the temperature curve in a fire resistance test furnace

1000° at five minutes, 1550° at 30 minutes 1700° at one hour, 1850° at two hours, 2000° at four hours, 2300° at eight hours


Because components are you there structural loadbearing or not the test results will be classified as

The bearing or non-non-bearing based on their intended use


The strengths and floor and ceiling assembly is affect the extent to which an assembly may

Rotate or expand exposed to temperatures affecting his ability to support a load


Structural fire systems test conducted they continue until

The specimen fails for the specified fire endurance for which the specimen being tested his reachEd


Primary points of failure for fire resistance test are

Failure to support and applied load, temperature increase on unexposed side of fall floor and roof of 250° above ambient temp
Passage of heat or flame through assembly enough to ignite cotton waste
Excessive temperature on steel numbers


Underwriters laboratory

Independent fire research testing lab that certifies equipment and materials


Failure point temperature on steel will depend on

How the steel is being used


Fire resistance rating for test specimen including fire doors and windows are in standard intervals of

15 minutes, 30 minutes, 45, one hour, 1.5 hour, two hours, three, four hour


Rated assemblies may perform differently in actual situations because

In the real world workmanship and materials encountered may vary


Fire stop

Solid materials used to prevent or limit vertical and horizontal spread of fire in hollow walls floors ceilings penetration of utility chases or fire rated assemblies


Fire rating test does not provide information on

Performance of object other than specified, evaluation to which assembly generates products of combustion, degree of limitation for the passage of smoke, fire behavior of joints between elements, measurement of flame spread over material surface, effect on fire endurance through openings in specified material


Joint systems for floor to wall and wall-to-wall connections are tested in accordance with

UL standard 2079 Standard for fire test of joint systems


Penetration of reading materials and building construction is a fire concerned because

It may not be properly fire stopped


Fire resistance directory

Directory that lists building assemblies that have been tested and given fire resistance rating's published by UL


In 1997 American Society of civil engineers, and society of fire protection engineer's, jointly developed standard calculation of fire resistance known as

ASCE/SFPE 29 Standard calculation methods for structural fire protection