The angle at which wings are slanted from root to rip
Describe the pendulum effect
A rolling effect resulting from sideforce-generating surfaces being above or below the centre of mass in an aircraft
How does an aircraft move during a slip?
The aircraft is moving somewhat sideways as well as forward relative to the oncoming airflow
How can the four forces be manipulated to maximize performance?
Increase lift, increase thrust, reduce weight, reduce drag
Contouring an airfoil to reduce it's drag (increasing laminar flow and decreasing turbulent flow)
Describe what happens to the four forces when frost, snow, or ice is present on an aircraft. What is the related concept called?
Clean wing concept
Describe how drag affects performance
What is fairing?
A structure that produces a smooth outline along the surface of an aircraft to reduce drag
What are three ways of maximizing performance by reducing parasitic drag?
Streamlining, fairing, and the clean wing concept
When would you expect the most induced drag?
When lots of lift is being created at low speeds (heavy aircraft, high angle of attack, clean configuration)
Describe the ground effect
Reduction in induced drag occurs at the wing tips when an aircraft is in close promiximity to the ground. This increases lift
Describe the range and endurance curves
What increases every time you increase lift?
What is the relationship between the speed of the root and tip of a propeller?
The tip travels faster than the root
Why are propellers twisted?
The root has a greater angle of attack than the tip to balance the difference in speed, so propellers are twisted to maintain the same angle of attack at each radius location
Define pitch and describe the two different types
Pitch - angle of the propeller blade
Coarse pitch - high angle of attack, good for fast cruise yet sluggish in climb
Fine pitch - low angle of attack, great for climbing yet has slow cruising speed
Define fixed pitch
Angle of attack is set at installation and cannot be changed during aircraft operation
Define adjustable pitch
Pitch can be changed on the ground
Define variable pitch
Pitch can be changed from the cockpit in flight
Define constant speed pitch
Propeller rpm is selected and pitch is automatically adjusted by various mechanisms in order to maintain it
Compare what happens when oil pressure is lost in hydromatic and counterweighted constant speed propellers
Hydromatic: blades fail to the maximum rpm (fine) pitch position
Counterweighted: blades fail to the coarse pitch or feathered position
Define adverse yaw. What causes it?
The natural tendency for an aircraft to yaw in the opposite direction of a roll. It is caused by the difference in the lift and drag of each wing
Name the four causes of adverse yaw
Slipstream, asymmetric thrust, torque, gyroscopic effect
Name 3 design solutions to counter adverse yaw
Rudder offset, different washout, engine offset
When should you expect to use more right rudder?
At a high RPM and low speeds (accelerating or takeoff, in a climb, or in slow flight)
What wing properties do ailerons manipulate?
The effective camber, the effective chord, and the angle of attack
How do ailerons affect lift?
Raised aileron reduces lift, lowered aileron increases lift
What happens to the motion of an aircraft when the left aileron drops and the right aileron rises?
The left wing rises, the right wing lowers, and the aircraft rolls right
What happens when elevators produce lift on top?
The tail rises and the aircraft pitches nose down
What happens if the rudder produces lift the the right?
The tail is drawn to the right and the aircraft yaws left