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Flashcards in Meteorology Deck (123)
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1

What is the chemical composition of the earth's atmosphere?

78% nitrogen

21% oxygen

1% CO2, inert gases

Water vapour

Impurities

2

Describe the different atmospheric layers in terms of altitude and temperature

3

What are the vital characteristics of the atmopshere?

Mobility, capacity for expansion, capacity for compression

4

List the characteristics of the ICAO standard atmosphere

15°C at sea level

Lapse rate of 1.98 degrees / 1000'

29.92" mercury

No humidity

5

Describe the atmospheric mass below certain altutides

6

What are two sources of temperature change?

Diurnal and seasonal

7

Where is the atmosphere heated from?

from below

8

Describe air in terms of conductivity and ability to absorb radiation

Air is a very poor conductor yet will readily absorb radiated heat

9

What is advection?

The horizontal transport of an atmospheric variable (like heat) due to mass motion by the wind

10

How does temperature affect the density of air?

Air expands when it is cool, and compresses when it is warm

11

List and describe three different ways humidity can be quantified

Relative humidity - how much water vapor is in the air, compared to how much it could hold at that temperature

Absolute humidity - measure of water vapor in the air, regardless of temperature

Temperature/dewpoint spread - the number of degrees of difference between the air temperature and the dew point

12

What is the dew point?

the temperature (in degrees) to which air must be cooled in order to be saturated with water vapor already in the air

13

Describe the state changes of water

14

At what humidity do clouds form? How can a parcel of air reach this humidity?

100% humidity

A parcel of air can become 100% humid by adding water and decreasing temperature

15

What are the following lapse rates:

Environmental

Dry adiabatic

Saturated Adiabatic

Environmental: 1.98°C/1000'

Dry adiabatic: 3°C/1000'

Saturated adiabatic: 1.5°C/1000'

16

List the altitude ranges for high, medium, and low clouds

High: 20,000' - 40,000'

Medium: 6500' - 20,000'

Low: ground - 6500'

17

Categorize the following clouds into low, middle, and high clouds. Which ones have vertical development?

 

altocrumulus, altostratus, cirrocumulus, cirrostratus, stratus, stratocumulus, nimbostratus, cumulonimbus, cirrus, cumulus

18

What kind of cloud is this?

Cirrus

19

What kind of cloud is this?

Cirrostratus

20

What kind of cloud is this?

Cirrocumulus

21

What kind of cloud is this?

Altostratus

22

What kind of cloud is this?

Altocumulus

23

What kind of cloud is this?

Cumulus

24

What kind of cloud is this?

Cumulonimbus

25

What kind of cloud is this?

Lens clouds

26

What kind of cloud is this?

Cap cloud

27

Describe orographic lifting. Where do clouds and precipitation form?

28

Describe how convective lifting forms a cumulus cloud

29

Describe how fronts form clouds

30

Describe the turbulence lifting agent

Air blowing on uneven surfaces causes uneven heating, which allows vertical currents to occur. Air moves upward, expands, and cools