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What are the meridians of longitude? How are they measured?

Lines joining the true (geographic) poles of the earth. They are measured from 0° - 180° east and west of the prime meridian in degrees (°) and seconds (')


Where is the prime meridian located?

Greenwhich, England


How many minutes are in a degree? How many seconds are in a minute?

There are 60 minutes in a degree and 60 seconds in a minute


How is latitude measured?

Measured 0° to 90° north and south of the equator


Define rhumb line. What are some examples of rhumb lines?

A curved line on the earth's surface which cuts all meridians at the same angle. All parallels of latitude are rhumb lines, as well as meridians, the equator, and great circles



Define great circle

A circle on the earth's surface whose plane passes through the center of the globe and divides it exactly in half


Define small circle

A circle on the earth's surface that does not pass through the center of the globe


What kind of circles are meridians and the equator?

Semi and complete great circle, respectively


Define isogonal lines. How are they numbered and represented on charts?

Lines (not straight) drawn on the map which join areas of equal variation. They are numbered east and west and represented on charts by dashed lines.


What are agonic lines?

Places on the earth where the true and magnetic north are aligned


What are the characteristics of the mercator projection?

Meridians are straight and parallel lines

Parallels of latitude are straight and parallel lines

A straight line drawn between any two points on the chart will represent a rhumb line

No constant scale of distance

Areas are greatly exaggerated in high altitudes


What kind of projection is this?



What projection is this?

Transverse mercator


Describe the characteristics of the transverse mercator projection

Point of Tangency is a meridian of longitude rather than the equator

Chart is more accurate along the selected meridian

Accurate in depicting scale, especially on charts covering a relatively small geographical area

Any of the 360 meridians of longitude can be selected as the point of tangency for the chart projection


Describe the characterstics of the lambert conformal projection

Meridians are curves or straight lines converging towards the poles

Parallels of latitude are curves which concave towards the nearest pole

The scale of distance is uniform throughout

A straight line drawn between two points can be assumed to be a great circle


What kind of projection is this?

Lambert conformal


Which projection is used by VNC? What is the scale?

Lambert conformal conic



Describe the difference between a chart and a map

Chart: represantation in miniature and on a flat surface, a portion of the earth's surface. emphasis is places on conformity of topography and geographical features

Map: geared towards item of interest. low conformal accuracy


What projection is used for VTAs? What is the scale?

Tramsverse mercator



Describe low enroute charts (LO)

Provide information for radio navigation over designated airway systems

Up to 18,000 feet

Do not portray cities or topographical features; only navigation aids, airways, and communication frequences

Scale is not constant & dependent on chart


Describe the 24 hour system in longitude


What is 12:00 (noon) UTC in NST, AST, EST, CST, MST, and PST?


If Greenwhich is 160° W of your position, how do you calculate the LCT of your position?

Add 10 hours 40 minutes (160 x 4 = 640mins) to GMT


If Greenwhich is 72° of your position, how do you calculate your LCT?

Subtract 4 hours 48 minutes (72 x 4 = 288mins) from GMT


Define indicated airspeed and true airspeed

Indicated airspeed: the airplane's speed as indicated by the airspeed indicator

True airspeed: speed of the airplane relative to the air. calibrated for density and temperature


Define groundspeed

Speed of the airplane relative to the ground


Define heading and track (intended)

Heading: the angle between the longitudinal axis of an airplane at any moment and a meridian

Track (intended): the direction an airplane intends to travel over the ground


Define track made good

The actual path traveled by the airplane over the ground


Define drift

Wind blowing from either side of an airplane will cause the airplane to drift away from its intended track