Wetlands and flooding Flashcards Preview

Water cycle (1) > Wetlands and flooding > Flashcards

Flashcards in Wetlands and flooding Deck (11)
Loading flashcards...
1

What are wetlands?

Areas where water covers soil all year round

2

(1) colonise to make the soil nutrient-rich
Wetlands vary due to regional and local differences in (2), topography, (3), hydrology, (4) and human factors

1 - Hydrophytes
2 - soil
3 - climate
4 - vegetation

3

Wetlands:
- (1) people live close to and depend on wetlands
- Trap (2) water and distribute it across the (3)
- Natural protection against (4)
- Supports the (5) cycle, recreational use and habitat

1 - 300-400 million
2 - flood
3 - floodplain
4 - coastal erosion and storm surges
5 - carbon

4

What is the Pantanel?

The largest wetland area in Central South America in the Upper Paraguay river basin

5

Drought increases tree (1) which reduces (2) ranching, even intended (3) can get out of control, usual January rainfall is (4)

1 - mortality
2 - cattle
3- wildfires
4 - 210mm

6

What is the difference between fluvial and pluvial flooding?

F - river flooding
P - caused by excessive rainfall not as a result of a river

7

What is the usual cause of flooding in the UK, SE Asia, Iceland and Bangladesh? (Spacial variations)

UK - Prolonged heavy rain with low pressure systems in a progressive cycle during autumn and early winter
SE A - monsoon season July-Sept
I - Glacial 'jokulhaup'
B - Flood plain

8

What are the physical causes of flooding?

- Meteorological (short-term weather event) or climatic causes
- Depression sequence e.g. succession of intense storms has a cumulative effect on the drainage system causing high pressure
- Low lying land
- Melting snow or ice

9

What are the human causes of flooding?

- Ploughing (compacts the soil)
- Deforestation
- Impermeable surfaces and drains

10

What are the socio-economic impacts of flooding?

- Deaths and homelessness
- Cars washed away
- Houses collapse
- Dangerous animals in floodwater
- Crops and livestock damaged
- Insurance more expensive
- Business disruption

11

What are the environmental impacts of flooding?

- Recharge groundwater
- Moves sediment
- Damages wildlife habitats