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Flashcards in The global hydrological cycle Deck (25)
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1

Global hydrological cycle:
- (1) system driven by (2) and (3) potential energy
- Made up of stores, flows, input and outputs
- Relative (4), size of stores and (5) can change over time

1 - closed
2 - solar
3 - gravitational
4 - importance
5 - fluxes

2

Global hydrological cycle:
- Water on earth is constant and (1)
- Water in the system can change (2) and storage but can't leave the (3) nor can it be (4)

1 - finite
2 - form
3 - hydrosphere
4 - added

3

Define 'hydrosphere'

The combined mass of water below, on and above the Earth's surface

4

Define store, flux and processes

S - where water is held
F - Speed of water movement
P - Ways water moves

5

Name some stores

Atmosphere, Lakes, Ice, Plants and Soil, Ocean and Rocks

6

Define 'residence time'

Average duration a water molecule will remain in a store

7

Why is a long turnover in a store a bad thing?

More vulnerable to pollution

8

What is the problem with soil acting as a store?

Easily accessible and so can be quickly lost to other stores which is a problem for agriculture and farming

9

What store has the longest residence time?

Atmospheric water

10

Name two global extremes

Polar hydrology and Tropical Rainforest Hydrology

11

Polar hydrology:
- Snow reflects (1)% of solar radiation
- (2) stores are impermeable
- In the summer, processes are; (3)
- Less than (4)mm of annual precipitation

1 - 85
2 - Permafrost
3 - run off and evaporation
4 - 200

12

Describe seasonal thaws in the polar hydrology

Seasonal thaws increases surface saturation and thinning permafrost, if this is continuous then the water melts and cryosphere is lost

13

Tropical Rainforest hydrology:
- Few seasonal (1)
- (2)% evaporation
- (3) rainfall and high humidity
- More than (4)mm annual precipitation
- E.g. of a cold desert is (5)

1 - changes
2 - 50-75
3 - convectional
4 - 200
5 - Antarctica

14

Describe biospheric water

Remains in a body for 1 week

15

Ice and snow:
- (1)% freshwater
- (2)% total water
- Lasts (3) years depending on size

1 - 69
2 - 2
3 - 15,000

16

Soil moisture:
- (1)% freshwater
- (2)% total water store
- Lasts (3) weeks

1 - 0.05
2 - 0.01
3 - 2-50

17

Underground water:
- (1)% freshwater
- (2)% total water stored
- Lasts (3) years if it's shallow or (4) if it's deep
- Ancient groundwater aka (5) is not renewable or accessible for human use

1 - 31
2 - 1
3 - 100-200
4 - up to 10,000
5 - fossil water

18

Define 'blue water'

Water that is visible in the hydrological cycle

19

Define 'green water'

Water that's invisible in the hydrological cycle e.g. soil and vegetation

20

Oceans:
- (1)% freshwater
- (2)% of total water
- (3) residence time

1 - 0
2 - 97
3 - 3,600

21

Lakes and rivers:
- (1)% freshwater
- (2)% total water
- (3) residence time depending on size

1 - 1
2 - 0.01
3 - 2 weeks to 50 years

22

Atmosphere:
- (1)% freshwater
- (2)% total water
- (3) residence time

1 - 0.04
2 - 0.001
3 - 10 days

23

What is the carrying capacity of the atmosphere dependent on?

Temperature of the clouds and density of water e.g. vapour or ice crystals - precursor to rain

24

The agricultural sector is the largest user of freshwater, describe the global distribution of countries using the most and least freshwater for farming

79-100% - North Africa (Not Nigeria) and South West Asia
63-79% - Australia, China, Mexico, South of Africa and Argentina
47-63% - Nigeria, Brazil, Mongolia
31-47% - USA, Alaska, Columbia and Venezuela
0-31% - Europe, Russia, Greenland, Canada

25

How much of the Earth's water is accessible for human use?

1%