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Flashcards in The drainage basin Deck (32)
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1

Drainage basin:
- (1) system
- AKA (2) can be any size
- (3) within the global hydrological system

1 - open
2 - local hydrological system
3 - subsystem

2

Define 'drainage basin'

The area of land drained by a river and its tributaries

3

Name five factors that affect the drainage basin

Climate
Soil
Geology
Relief
Vegetation

4

How does climate affect the drainage basin?

Affects the rate of evaporation, precipitation and vegetation growth

5

How does soil affect the drainage basin?

Clay - impermeable due to particle size so stores water
Sand based - through flow and infiltration

6

How does geology affect the drainage basin?

Chalk and Sandstone allows aquifers as water soaks into them
Pervious (limestone) allows water to flow but not into the rock
Caves and stalagmites

7

How does relief affect the drainage basin?

Orographic rainfall affects run off as a steeper slope will reduce infiltration

8

Name four human impacts on the drainage basin

- Deforestation
- Urbanisation
- Agriculture
- Mega dams

9

How does deforestation affect the drainage basin?

Less interception so rain falls directly on the soil > compaction > less EVT

10

How does urbanisation affect the drainage basin?

Less infiltration capacity

11

How does agriculture affect the drainage basin?

Water needed for irrigation, pasture compact soil, arable removes nutrients and requires heavy machinery

12

How do mega damns affect the drainage basin?

Increased EVT and reduces water downstream

13

Amazonia:
- (1)% destroyed in the last 50 years
- Trees are '(2)' act as carbon sinks
- (3)% of rainfall is recycled from trees
- (4)% of intercepted water is EVT
- Contains (5)% of the world's rainforest

1 - 20
2 - green lungs
3 - 50
4 - 75
5 - 60

14

How does the El Nino Southern Oscillation affect the Amazonia?

Droughts and forest fires

15

Why is run-off into the Amazon problematic?

Aquifer depletion and soil erosion

16

Name the only input of the drainage basin system

Precipitation

17

Name the five flows in the drainage basin system

Infiltration
Percolation
Through flow
Run off
Groundwater flow

18

Name four stores in the drainage basin system

Surface store
Interception
Soil moisture
Channel store

19

Name the three outputs in the drainage basin system

Transpiration
Evaporation
River discharge

20

Define 'percolation'

When water flows through the soil by the force of gravity

21

Where is precipitation heaviest and why? What affects precipitation?

Tropics due to the Intertropical Convergence Zone and places that get monsoons
ITCZ - high solar radiation causes rapid convection of warm air
Also affected by continentality (distance from sea) and land relief

22

Why could precipitation act as a store? What affect does this have on precipitation distribution?

E.g. snow takes longer to form
Not evenly distributed across drainage basin

23

Name the seven fluxes (flows)

Interception
Infiltration
Direct run off
Saturated over land flow
Through flow
Percolation
Ground water flow

24

What affects interception?

- Size of the leaves (vary throughout the year)
- Deciduous (loses its leaves during the winter)

25

What affects infiltration? (mm/hr)

- antecedent soil moisture
- soil compaction
- slope angle

26

Name four factors that affects the volume of evaporation

- Hours of sun
- Air movement
- Albedo

27

Where is the Amazon River located?

South America

28

Amazon river regime:
- (1)km long
- (2) km squared basin
- Snowmelt from the (3)

1 - 6,308
2 - 6 million
3 - Andes Mountain Range

29

Where is the Yukon river?

North America (Canada and Alaska)

30

Yukon river regime:
- (1)km long
- (2)km squared drainage basin
- (3) climate through a mountain range

1 - 3,540
2 - 850,000
3 - Tundra