Flashcards in urinary system Deck (66)
Filtration occurs when
blood fluids leave the glomerulus and enter the Bowman's capsule.
Reabsorption occurs when
the filtrate passes from the nephron tubules to the peritubular capillaries.
The sodium potassium exchange pump is an example of
Sympathetic impulses cause the smooth muscle of the bladder wall to contract.
1. Pendrin is found in __________ intercalated cells where it allows for the ________________ of bicarbonate.
type B; secretion
The expected response to metabolic alkalosis is the ___________________ of Pendrin. Type _____________ also assist in buffering the alkaline blood through its transport of H+.
During facilitated diffusion, a given carrier protein can move a substance either into or out of the cell depending on its concentration gradient.
3. Decreased Na+ and water reaborption due to the use of loop diuretics and thiazides __________ the concentration gradient of the interstitial fluid, thereby _____________ the osmotic force at the collecting tubule and duct.
The nephron loop is responsible for approximately 25% of the reabsorption of sodium. Loop diuretics cause an overall __________________ in the reabsorption of sodium in this region resulting in a(n) ________________________ in the osmolarity of the tubular filtrate.
The ___________ inside the bladder is formed by imaginary lines connecting the two ureter openings and the urethral opening.
Podocytes and pedicels are part of the
The kidneys make the final enzyme for synthesis of the hormone _________, which causes increased calcium absorption in the small intestine.
In response to low blood ________, the kidneys secrete __________
Which of the following choices lists structures in the order in which urine flows through them?
Minor calyx, major calyx, renal pelvis
The first structure in the kidney to collect newly formed urine is the
The juxtaglomerular cells release the enzyme ______________ when the macula densa cells detect low blood volume or solute concentration.
Immunity can be transferred from mother to child. When the child's immunity is acquired
through the placenta or through breastmilk, it is passive immunity.
Which of the following lists the body's first, second, and third lines of defense in order?
ernal innate immunity, internal innate immunity, adaptive immunity
Which type of antigen would have the greatest immunogenicity?
e that is large, complex, foreign, and abundant
The immunity that occurs as a result of a vaccination is _________ immunity.
An individual gets a snake bite and goes to the hospital to receive antibodies against the venom. This individual is acquiring
Nonspecific immunity is another name for
In terms of their chemical structure, cytokines are _______; their function is to serve as _________.
proteins; chemical messengers
An immunoglobulin is a(n)
antibody, which is a protein molecule.
Often a virus-infected cell will release _________ to prevent spread of the infection.
A delayed response to a specific antigen is provided by
A membrane attack complex is a protein grouping that
forms a channel in the target cell membrane that causes cytolysis.
fluid that leaves capillaries to "wash" the interstitial space of an injured tissue.
Which is not an action of interferon?
It signals the immune system that the secreting cell is part of the body and so should not be attacked.