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Flashcards in urinary system Deck (66)
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1

Filtration occurs when

blood fluids leave the glomerulus and enter the Bowman's capsule.

2

Reabsorption occurs when

the filtrate passes from the nephron tubules to the peritubular capillaries.

3

The sodium potassium exchange pump is an example of

active transport.

4

Sympathetic impulses cause the smooth muscle of the bladder wall to contract.

False

5

1. Pendrin is found in __________ intercalated cells where it allows for the ________________ of bicarbonate.

type B; secretion

6

The expected response to metabolic alkalosis is the ___________________ of Pendrin. Type _____________ also assist in buffering the alkaline blood through its transport of H+.

upregulation; B

7

During facilitated diffusion, a given carrier protein can move a substance either into or out of the cell depending on its concentration gradient.

False

8

3. Decreased Na+ and water reaborption due to the use of loop diuretics and thiazides __________ the concentration gradient of the interstitial fluid, thereby _____________ the osmotic force at the collecting tubule and duct.

lowers; reducing

9

The nephron loop is responsible for approximately 25% of the reabsorption of sodium. Loop diuretics cause an overall __________________ in the reabsorption of sodium in this region resulting in a(n) ________________________ in the osmolarity of the tubular filtrate.

decrease; increase

10

The ___________ inside the bladder is formed by imaginary lines connecting the two ureter openings and the urethral opening.

trigone

11

Podocytes and pedicels are part of the

glomerular capsule.

12

The kidneys make the final enzyme for synthesis of the hormone _________, which causes increased calcium absorption in the small intestine.

calcitriol

13

In response to low blood ________, the kidneys secrete __________

oxygen; erythropoietin

14

Which of the following choices lists structures in the order in which urine flows through them?

Minor calyx, major calyx, renal pelvis

15

The first structure in the kidney to collect newly formed urine is the

minor calyx.

16

The juxtaglomerular cells release the enzyme ______________ when the macula densa cells detect low blood volume or solute concentration.

renin

17

Immunity can be transferred from mother to child. When the child's immunity is acquired

through the placenta or through breastmilk, it is passive immunity.

18

Which of the following lists the body's first, second, and third lines of defense in order?

ernal innate immunity, internal innate immunity, adaptive immunity

19

Which type of antigen would have the greatest immunogenicity?

e that is large, complex, foreign, and abundant

20

The immunity that occurs as a result of a vaccination is _________ immunity.

active

21

An individual gets a snake bite and goes to the hospital to receive antibodies against the venom. This individual is acquiring

passive immunity.

22

Nonspecific immunity is another name for

innate immunity.

23

In terms of their chemical structure, cytokines are _______; their function is to serve as _________.

proteins; chemical messengers

24

An immunoglobulin is a(n)

antibody, which is a protein molecule.

25

Often a virus-infected cell will release _________ to prevent spread of the infection.

interferon

26

A delayed response to a specific antigen is provided by

adaptive immunity.

27

A membrane attack complex is a protein grouping that

forms a channel in the target cell membrane that causes cytolysis.

28

Exudate is

fluid that leaves capillaries to "wash" the interstitial space of an injured tissue.

29

Which is not an action of interferon?

It signals the immune system that the secreting cell is part of the body and so should not be attacked.

30

Defensins and lysosomes are both part of ________ immunity and function as ___________.

innate; attackers of pathogenic cells