Flashcards in Endo & Lymphatic system Deck (62)
Steroid hormones are lipids, derived from
Within the adenylate cyclase signal transduction pathways of target cells, cAMP activates
The term down-regulation refers to the process by which
a cell decreases the number of receptors it has for a hormone.
Cortisol binds to _________ receptors and has the effect of ________ blood glucose levels.
The two hormones released from the posterior pituitary are
oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone.
Which type of hormone requires a carrier protein in the blood?
When a chemical messenger helps initiate an inflammatory response by causing cellular changes in neighboring cells, it is demonstrating ___________ signaling.
Which hormone group is not secreted by the adrenal cortex?
No exceptions; all choices are secreted by the adrenal cortex
Within the infundibulum, the axons from neurons extending into the posterior pituitary are known as the
The release of hormones from the adrenal medulla is stimulated by
the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system.
Where is the pituitary gland located?
Within the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone
Parathyroid hormone release depends on blood levels of calcium. Such an endocrine reflex is said to be initiated by
Compared to young adults, the elderly usually have ______ levels of circulating growth hormone and _____ levels of circulating sex hormones.
Where are the target cells for follicle-stimulating hormone?
Ovaries and testes
Thyroid hormone synthesis involves secretion of a glycoprotein called ___________ by the follicular cells.
Intracellular signaling pathways within target cells are organized such that
each step allows for amplification of the signal where one molecule can activate many.
The metabolic condition called ___________ results from the destruction of the beta cells in the pancreas due to an autoimmune response.
Type 1 diabetes
Damage to the liver might impair enzymatic degradation of some hormones. The levels of such hormones in the blood would therefore be expected to
The thyroid gland is located
immediately anterior to the trachea.
Which is not characteristic of the endocrine system?
Recovery time: rapid, immediate return to prestimulation level
The release of hormones from the adrenal cortex is stimulated by
are ductless glands.
are the organs of the endocrine system.
secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream.
help maintain homeostasis.
All of the choices are correct.
Glucagon and insulin work _________ on blood glucose levels.
The _______ secretes triiodothyronine.
Hyperglycemia (high blood glucose levels) would cause the pancreas to _________ insulin secretion, and hypoglycemia (low blood glucose levels) would cause the pancreas to _________ insulin secretion.
Antidiuretic hormone (known as ADH or vasopressin)
increases water retention from renal tubules.
The hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system connects the hypothalamus to the
The pancreas has pancreatic islets composed of primarily alpha and beta cells. Alpha cells secrete
Secretion of insulin causes
a decrease in the concentration of blood glucose.