Unit 4: Chapters 14, 15, 16 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 4: Chapters 14, 15, 16 Deck (60)
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1

What are the differences between physical and chemical weathering?

mechanical weathering is the physical disintegration of rock material without any change in its chemical composition.
chemical weathering is the decomposition of rock by the chemical alteration of its minerals.

2


With what geographic regions are physical and chemical weathering most associated?



warm regions close to the equator


3

What is the process or cause of frost action?

water gets into rock, expands, starts splitting rock

4

What is the process or cause of oxidation?

if rock has iron, rusts

5

What is the process or cause of hydrolysis?

water exposed like in oxidation

6

What is the process or cause of granular disintegration?

acid rain, causes splits sedimentary rocks

7

Describe the process of landslides as concerned to mass wasting

quickest and most dangerous process of mass wasting
move large amts of material in small amt of time
destroy whole towns

8

Describe the process of mudflows as concerned to mass wasting

similar to landslides
primarily caused my huge rains
soil can only retain so much water, so it starts slipping

9

Describe the process of slumping as concerned to mass wasting

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10

Describe the process of solifluction as concerned to mass wasting

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11

Describe the process of soil creep as concerned to mass wasting

slowest form
tomb stone shifts, for example
very slow -- shifts land beneath things

12

Know the relationship between average soil depth and the weathering and erosional properties of environments as one traverses from the equator to the polar regions.

mirror each other
erosion in tropics, soil depth is really deep

13

Soil profiles - O horizin

organic -- o1 - dead leaves and sticks, o2 - decomposition (animals)

14

Soil profiles - A horizin

transition between leeching and organic

15

Soil profiles - B horizin

zone of leeching, nutrients and minerals are being pulled from A to B

16

Soil profiles - C horizin

mix of rocks, not a lot of mineral

17

Soil profiles - D or R horizin

bedrock

18

Know what is meant by soil texture

sand -- can't hold water, but water can pass
silt -- retains water, doesn't let it move through
clay -- water repellent, makes it slippery

19

How does soil texture relate to the general quality of the soil regarding tilage

33% of each for ideal soil texture, easy to move it

20

How does soil texture relate to the general quality of the soil regarding water holding capacity

sand -- can't hold water, but water can pass
silt -- retains water, doesn't let it move through
clay -- water repellent, makes it slippery

21

macro soil nutrients

nitrogen
phosphorus
potassium

22

micro soil nutrients

argon, specific nutrients for certain plants

23

soil pH

roses -- acid soil
different pH's can change composition / color of plants

24

soil forming processes: podzolization

soil that develops in high latitude regions tends to be acidic

25

soil forming processes: calcification

desert - nutrients get sucked up, causing the soil to be acidic / poisonous

26

soil forming processes: laterization

you don't want this soil
tropics, poorest soil quality, so much erosion / soil is too deep for nutrients to be left

27

what is the impact of podzolization on the overall quality of the soils which are produced

good soil

28

what is the impact of calcification on the overall quality of the soils which are produced

fair to poor soil

29

what is the impact of laterization on the overall quality of the soils which are produced

poor soil

30

How do rivers erode the landscape?

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