Unit 3: Chapter 8, 13, 14 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 3: Chapter 8, 13, 14 Deck (127)
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1
Explain what the following means:

s

summer dry season (A, C & D)

1

Metamorphic Rocks

formed from other rocks, changed under heat and pressure (ex. limestone turns to marble)

1

Batholith

the largest and most amorphous of igneous intrusions

2
Explain what the following means:

F

ice cap (E)

2

What is the relationship between rocks and minerals?

minerals are the building blocks of rocks

3

How are seismic waves used to look into the earth?

Inside the earth

3

Lava vs. Magma

Magma is the molten material beneath the Earth's surface, while when it reaches the surface and comes out of the volcano it becomes lava

4
Describe the following climate:

Aw

tropical savannah - wet most of the year with a distinct dry season during the winter, warm and hot temperature year round. Migration of sun's direct rays causes a shift in pressure and wind belts, which causes a distinct dry season in the winter.

5

external processes

destructive processes that serve to denude or wear down the landscape, including weathering, mass wasting and erosion

6
Know the general geographic regions for the following climates:

C

occupy the equatorward margin of the midlatitudes and extend further poleward along the west coast than the east coast.

6
Identify the contributing causes:

C

a transition between warmer tropical climates

6

Transform Plate

two plates slipping past one another laterally

6

Know how to determine the magnitude of an earthquake, ex. how much greater is a 6.0 earthquake than a 3.0 earthquake?

A 7 magnitude earthquake would be 1 million times stronger than a 1.0.

1,000,000 (7 digits)

So a 6.0 magnitude earthquake would be 1,000 times greater 3.0.

6

epicenter

location on the surface directly above the center of fault rupture during an earthquake

7

Sedimentary Rocks

The compaction and cementation of sediments - unconsolidated sediments > compaction > cementation (ex. sandstone)

7

Intrusive Rocks

solidified beneath the earth's surface and cool slowly, have a larger crystalline structure (ex. granite)

8
Describe the following climate:

Cfd

Humid Continental - cool summer, severe winter

9
Explain what the following means:

S

steppe (B)

9
Identify the contributing causes:

D

humid continental: dominated by the westerly wind belt

sub arctic: westerlies and cyclonic storms

9

Pyroclastic Material

solid rock fragments thrown into the air by volcanic explosions

9

Volcanoes found along the west coast of North America are classified as what type of volcano?

composite

11
Explain what the following means:

C

mild midlatitude: mild winters, warm or hot summers

12

Volcanic ash

fine particles of pyroclastic material blown out of a volcanic vent

13

Define Rock

solid material composed of aggregated mineral particles

14

What are the characteristics of a cinder volcano?

smallest of volcanic mountains

magma chemistry varies, but basaltic magma is most common

cone-shape peaks built by the pyroclastic materials that are ejected from the volcanic vent

15

How do Seismic waves operate?

P-wave - push or pull / compression wave, travels through both solids and liquids, like a slinky back and forth

S-wave - shear, like shaking a slinky up and down, or the way waves go through jump rope, only goes through solids

15

Why are sedimentary rocks most commonly found on earth's surface? But ingeneious rocks are the most abundant in the earth's crust?

Sedimentary rocks are formed by the combination of sediment and other objects on top of the surface, but ingeneous rocks are formed under the surface

16
What is the physical state of the following:

Crust

oceanic and continental crust - solid

18
Identify the contributing causes:

A

movement of the intertropical convergence zone

19
Describe the following climate:

Am

tropical monsoon - high amounts of precipitation during one season, and low precipitation during another. Fairly constant high temperature caused by seasonal migration of direct rays of sun causes wind and pressure belts to shift. Trades bring the rains and high pressure brings dry season.