summer dry season (A, C & D)
formed from other rocks, changed under heat and pressure (ex. limestone turns to marble)
the largest and most amorphous of igneous intrusions
ice cap (E)
What is the relationship between rocks and minerals?
minerals are the building blocks of rocks
How are seismic waves used to look into the earth?
Inside the earth
Lava vs. Magma
Magma is the molten material beneath the Earth's surface, while when it reaches the surface and comes out of the volcano it becomes lava
tropical savannah - wet most of the year with a distinct dry season during the winter, warm and hot temperature year round. Migration of sun's direct rays causes a shift in pressure and wind belts, which causes a distinct dry season in the winter.
destructive processes that serve to denude or wear down the landscape, including weathering, mass wasting and erosion
occupy the equatorward margin of the midlatitudes and extend further poleward along the west coast than the east coast.
a transition between warmer tropical climates
two plates slipping past one another laterally
Know how to determine the magnitude of an earthquake, ex. how much greater is a 6.0 earthquake than a 3.0 earthquake?
A 7 magnitude earthquake would be 1 million times stronger than a 1.0.
1,000,000 (7 digits)
So a 6.0 magnitude earthquake would be 1,000 times greater 3.0.
location on the surface directly above the center of fault rupture during an earthquake
The compaction and cementation of sediments - unconsolidated sediments > compaction > cementation (ex. sandstone)
solidified beneath the earth's surface and cool slowly, have a larger crystalline structure (ex. granite)
Humid Continental - cool summer, severe winter
humid continental: dominated by the westerly wind belt
sub arctic: westerlies and cyclonic storms
solid rock fragments thrown into the air by volcanic explosions
Volcanoes found along the west coast of North America are classified as what type of volcano?
mild midlatitude: mild winters, warm or hot summers
fine particles of pyroclastic material blown out of a volcanic vent
solid material composed of aggregated mineral particles
What are the characteristics of a cinder volcano?
smallest of volcanic mountains
magma chemistry varies, but basaltic magma is most common
cone-shape peaks built by the pyroclastic materials that are ejected from the volcanic vent
How do Seismic waves operate?
P-wave - push or pull / compression wave, travels through both solids and liquids, like a slinky back and forth
S-wave - shear, like shaking a slinky up and down, or the way waves go through jump rope, only goes through solids
Why are sedimentary rocks most commonly found on earth's surface? But ingeneious rocks are the most abundant in the earth's crust?
Sedimentary rocks are formed by the combination of sediment and other objects on top of the surface, but ingeneous rocks are formed under the surface
oceanic and continental crust - solid
movement of the intertropical convergence zone
tropical monsoon - high amounts of precipitation during one season, and low precipitation during another. Fairly constant high temperature caused by seasonal migration of direct rays of sun causes wind and pressure belts to shift. Trades bring the rains and high pressure brings dry season.