Unit 2: Chapters 5, 6, 7 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 2: Chapters 5, 6, 7 Deck (135)
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1

What is standard atmospheric pressure?

14.7 lbs per square inch

2

What are the four ways standard atmospheric pressure can be expressed?

14.7 lbs per square inch
1013.25 millibars / hectopascals
101.325 kilopascal
?

3

How is pressure gradient calculated?

It is the relative closeness of isobars, indicating the horizontal rate of pressure change; the slope

4

What is an isobar?

lines of equal pressure

5

What is the coriolis effect?

deflection acts at 90 degrees from the direction of movement -- to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and the left in the Southern Hemisphere.

6

How does coriolis force affect circulation around Northern Hemisphere High Pressure?

circulates clockwise

7

How does coriolis force affect circulation around Northern Hemisphere Low Pressure?

circulates counterclockwise

8

How does coriolis force affect circulation around Southern Hemisphere High Pressure?

circulates counterclockwise

9

How does coriolis force affect circulation around Southern Hemisphere Low Pressure?

circulates clockwise

10

Where on earth is there no coriolis effect?

The Equator

11

Be able to locate the position of the major wind and pressure belts that make up global circulation.

from top to bottom:
polar high
polar easterlies
polar low
westerlies
subtropical high
trade winds
equatorial low
trade winds
subtropical high
westerlies
polar low
polar easterlies
polar high

12

Name the pressure belts and wind systems starting at the North Pole and working towards the South Pole.

polar high
polar easterlies
polar low
westerlies
subtropical high
trade winds
equatorial low
trade winds
subtropical high
westerlies
polar low
polar easterlies
polar high

13

How do pressure gradients affect the strength of the wind?

Closer isobars = stronger winds. Pressure of high to low creates wind

14

What causes monsoons?

Winter shift in intertropical convergence zone produces shift in trade winds location

15

Why is it dry in India and SE Asia during the winter?

thermally induced systems, outblowing dry

16

Why is it very wet in India and SE Asia during the summer?

monsoons

17

Be able to explain the cause of land breezes.

Nocturnal cooling over the land causes high air pressure there, a condition that creates an offshore flow of air.

18

Be able to explain the cause of sea breezes.

Land rapidly heats during the day, heating the air above. Air expands and rises, creating low pressure that attracts surface breezes from over the adjacent water body.

19

Be able to explain the cause of mountain breezes.

at night, the heat is quickly los from the face of the slope and cooled air flows downwards

20

Be able to explain the cause of valley breezes

warned air rises, creating a low-pressure cell and cooler air flows into the low pressure area

21

What is a katabatic wind?

spilling of air downslope, originate in cold upland areas and cascade toward lower elevations under the influence of gravity
ex. antarctica whipping winds off of icy cliffs

22

What is a Santa Anas wind?

high speeds, high temp, extreme dryness

23

What is the hydrolic cycle?

evaopration, condensation, precipitation

24

Know how temperature affects evaporation

high temp = high evaporation

25

Know how humidity affects evaporation

warm air prompts evaporation

26

Know how turbulence affects evaporation

more wind = more evaporation

27

Be able to define absolute humidity

mass of water vapor in a g / m^3

28

Be able to define specific humidity

amount of water vapor per unit weight of air

29

Be able to define relative humidity

how dense air is, how filled is the air with water vapor. water vapor / water vapor capacity

30

Define the relationship between temperature and holding capacity for water vapor in the atmosphere

an inverse relationship as temperature increases the capacity decreases