Flashcards in Unit 2: Chapters 5, 6, 7 Deck (135)
What is standard atmospheric pressure?
14.7 lbs per square inch
What are the four ways standard atmospheric pressure can be expressed?
14.7 lbs per square inch
1013.25 millibars / hectopascals
How is pressure gradient calculated?
It is the relative closeness of isobars, indicating the horizontal rate of pressure change; the slope
What is an isobar?
lines of equal pressure
What is the coriolis effect?
deflection acts at 90 degrees from the direction of movement -- to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and the left in the Southern Hemisphere.
How does coriolis force affect circulation around Northern Hemisphere High Pressure?
How does coriolis force affect circulation around Northern Hemisphere Low Pressure?
How does coriolis force affect circulation around Southern Hemisphere High Pressure?
How does coriolis force affect circulation around Southern Hemisphere Low Pressure?
Where on earth is there no coriolis effect?
Be able to locate the position of the major wind and pressure belts that make up global circulation.
from top to bottom:
Name the pressure belts and wind systems starting at the North Pole and working towards the South Pole.
How do pressure gradients affect the strength of the wind?
Closer isobars = stronger winds. Pressure of high to low creates wind
What causes monsoons?
Winter shift in intertropical convergence zone produces shift in trade winds location
Why is it dry in India and SE Asia during the winter?
thermally induced systems, outblowing dry
Why is it very wet in India and SE Asia during the summer?
Be able to explain the cause of land breezes.
Nocturnal cooling over the land causes high air pressure there, a condition that creates an offshore flow of air.
Be able to explain the cause of sea breezes.
Land rapidly heats during the day, heating the air above. Air expands and rises, creating low pressure that attracts surface breezes from over the adjacent water body.
Be able to explain the cause of mountain breezes.
at night, the heat is quickly los from the face of the slope and cooled air flows downwards
Be able to explain the cause of valley breezes
warned air rises, creating a low-pressure cell and cooler air flows into the low pressure area
What is a katabatic wind?
spilling of air downslope, originate in cold upland areas and cascade toward lower elevations under the influence of gravity
ex. antarctica whipping winds off of icy cliffs
What is a Santa Anas wind?
high speeds, high temp, extreme dryness
What is the hydrolic cycle?
evaopration, condensation, precipitation
Know how temperature affects evaporation
high temp = high evaporation
Know how humidity affects evaporation
warm air prompts evaporation
Know how turbulence affects evaporation
more wind = more evaporation
Be able to define absolute humidity
mass of water vapor in a g / m^3
Be able to define specific humidity
amount of water vapor per unit weight of air
Be able to define relative humidity
how dense air is, how filled is the air with water vapor. water vapor / water vapor capacity