Flashcards in Sleep Phys and Disorders Deck (50)
What part of the brain, in very general terms, regulates sleep?
See slide 5 for ambient light summary
Body temperature does what during sleep periods?
Growth hormone is released most when?
Just after we fall asleep
Cortisol is released most when
Just before we wake up
Method of measuring sleep is known as
How many stages of sleep are there
What are the different divisions of EEG frequency
Beta- Over 13 hz
Alpha- 8-13 hz
Theta- 4-7 hz
D- less than 4
Beta frequency EEG
Over 13 hz. Most commonly seen in normal awake human beings
As frequency falls, what happens to ampltude>
So, basically as you progress from "Awake" through stage 4, the frequency of the EEG falls while the amplitude of the waves rise.
What is unique about the EEG in REM sleep?
It is appears to be very similar to that of the awake sleep
Stages I-IV together are called
Non- REM sleep
Stage I is the lightest sleep and stage 4 is the...
Sleep spindles and K complexes are characteristics of what stage of sleep
What type of EEG activity characterizes stage I and II of sleep?
Stage 3 and 4 sleep are characterized by what kinds of EEG waves
The duration of sleep in stages 3 and 4 is longest when?
Early in a sleep cycle
The duration of REM sleep is longest when>
Late in the sleep cycle
Compare Non-REM with REM. Physiologically
NREM- Eye movements are slow, movement occurs but muscle tone is decreased
- Decreased BP, HR, RR, metabolic rate
- Dreams less vivid, low emotional content
- Sleep walking and night terrors occur during slow wave
- All reach a maximum during Stage IV sleep
- Rapid eye movements
- muscle paralysis
- HR, BP, RR, temp and metabolism approach awake level
- Dreams Vivid, high emotional content
Penile and clitoral erection occur when?
During REM sleep
Brain activity is increased where during REM sleep?
_ Amygdala, parahippocampal gyrus, anterior cingulate cortex
What brain areas are inhibited during REM
- Frontal Cortex and posterior Cingulate cortex.
What is the significance of these active and inactive brain regions
- The activity explains the vivid, emotional dreams that occur during REM.
- The inhibition of the certain brain regions may explain the bizarre nature of some dreams due to reduced executive reasoning and ratinal thought
Make a chart for the Neural sleep circuits
The Neural sleep Circuit that is Cholinergic in nature is
- Cholinergic neurons from the pedunculopontine (PPT) and Lateral Dorsal Tegmental (LDT) project to the thalamus and other brainstem areas.
- Triggers thalamic cortical signaling that produces high frequency, low voltage EEG activity consistent with arousal.
- Also active during REM sleep
Noradrenergic sleep circuit?
Noradrenergic input comes from the locus ceruleus to the neocortex
Highly activated during wakefullness, none during REM
Dopaminergic wakefullness cicuits originate where?
This circuit is most important for full wakefullness
Serotonergic circuits originate where?
dorsal and medial raphe nuclei