Respiratory Physiology Flashcards Preview

Physiology > Respiratory Physiology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Respiratory Physiology Deck (212)
Loading flashcards...
181

Efferent stimulation of inspiration

  • Stimulation of respiratory muscles
  • Expiratory muscles inhibited
  • N. phrenicus stimulated

182

Efferent stimulation of expiration

  • Normally passive
  • Inspiratory muscles inhibited
  • Expiratory muscles stimulated

183

Which is more important:

  • Peripheral reception
  • Cenral reception

Central reception

184

Location of the highest sensitivity to

  • pCO2 of blood and CSF
  • pH

  • The bottom of the IVth ventricle
  • Influences the DRG (inspiratory)

185

How does CO2 stimulate DRG activity?

  • CO2 → CSF
  • pH drop → DRG activity stimulated

186

Receptors of peripheral reception are located...

  • Glomus caroticum (Carotid body)
  • Glomus aorticum (Aortic body)

187

Glomus caroticum

  • Cluster of chemoreceptors
  • Found at bifurcation of the carotid artery

188

Glomus aorticum

  • Chemoreceptors and baroreceptors
  • Located along the aortic arch

189

Peripheral reception is sensitive to...

pO2

190

Secondary protective mechanism

  • By peripheral reception
  • pO2  reception
  • Generates hyperventilation

191

Breathing type

Normal

192

Breathing type

Biot

  • Long apnea

193

Breathing type

Cheyne-Stokes

  • Characteristic periodicity

194

Breathing type

Kussmaul

  • Found in uremia and diabetic coma

195

Normal breathing

  • Steady inspiration + Expiration
  • Uniform depth

196

Dyspnea

Random breathing

197

List the defensive respiratory reflexes

  • Sneezing
  • Coughing
  • Nociceptive apnea
  • Diving reflex
  • Combined swallowing reflex

198

Sneezing

  • Mechanical/chemical irritation of upper respiratory tract
  • Speed: 300 m/s

199

Coughing

  • Tracheo-bronchial irritation
  • Mechanism similar to sneezing

200

Nociceptive apnea

  • Prevents inhilation of gases or fumes
  • Sudden apnea
  • Same may happen for pain or cooling sensation

201

Diving reflex

  • Water in contact with the head
  • Breathing motions inhibited
  • Protection from inspiration of water

202

Combined swallowing reflex

  • Foot touches pharyngeal wall
  • Apnea → prevents choking

203

Birds ventilate their lungs by expanding...

Their air sacs

204

The cranial group of air sacs contain...

Used air

205

The caudal group of air sacs contain...

Fresh air

206

Mechanism of air sacs

  • Inhalation 1: Caudal air sacs fill
  • Exhalation 1: Caudal air sacs empty, lungs fill
  • Inhalation 2: Cranial air sacs fill
  • Exhalation: Cranial air sacs empty

207

Benefit of the avian breathing cycle

  • Continuous gas exchange
  • Continuous respiration
  • Allows higher energy level than mammals

208

The finest branches of the avian bronchial system

Parabronchi

  • Allows air to flow through unlike mammalian alveoli

209

Countercurrent flow in the lung

  • Allows gas exchange
  • Air and the blood flow to eachother

210

The lower gas-exchange capacity of bovines is a predisposing factor for...

Broncho-alveolar hypoxia