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Flashcards in Immunophysiology Deck (163)
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1

What did Edward Jenner achieve?

What was his method?

  • Invented the vaccine
  • Pus taken from a cowpox pustule
  • Inserted into the arm of a boy
  • The boy was vaccinated

2

What are the two pathways of removing pathogens?

  • Innate/Natural immunity
  • Adaptive/Acquired immunity

3

Summary of natural immunity

  • Cellular and humoral elements remove pathogens
  • Not antigen specific
  • Immediate reaction
  • Activated by toll-like receptor

4

Summary of aquired immunity

  • Production of specific antibodies
  • Response can be humoral or cellular

5

Which type of antigen aren't antibodies produced against

Major histocompatibility complex

6

Innate and active immune processes are divided into 3 phases:

  • Afferent phase
  • Central Phase
  • Efferent Phase

7

What occurs during the Afferent phase of innate immunity?

Responsive immune cells are prepared

8

What occurs during the central phase of innate immunity?

Specific immunoglobulins (Abs) produced in large quanitites

9

What occurs during the Efferent phase of innate immunity?

Non-self matter is eliminated

10

Give the organs of the Primary immune system

  • Thymus
  • Bursa
  • Embryonic liver
  • Bone marrow (Red and yellow)

11

Give the organs of the secondary immune system

  • Lymph nodes
  • Spleen
  • MALT (Mucosa assoicated lymph tissue)
  • GALT (Gut associated lymph tissue)

12

Which long-term process is shown in the figure?

The involution of the thymus over a lifetime

13

What are macrophages derived from?

Monocytes

14

Which cells can kill viruses-infected and tumour cells without a previous encounter?

Natural killer cells

15

Natural killer cells don't require binding to...

MHC-Ag complex

They can kill tumour cells that have low levels of MHC molecules

16

Which cell surface markers are absent from NK cells?

CD4 and CD8 antigens

17

NK cells posess ... which prevent lysis of cells with MHC molecules

Killer inhibitory receptors

cells bind to these to avoid being eliminated

18

Which NK receptors cause lysis of target cells?

Killer activating receptors

19

Which cell is described as the bridge between the innate and adaptive immune system

Dentritic cell (Innate immune system)

contains TLRs

20

Describe the immune system activation via the Toll-like receptor (TLR)

  • Receptor acts as a sensor
    • Recognises microorganisms by ligand binding
  • Activates innate immune system
  • Inflammation

If toll gene is mutated, the system wont work

 

21

How many toll-receptors have been identified?

10+

22

Give the varieties of toll-like receptor

External TLRs: On the cell surface

Internal TLRs: On endosomes

23

Why can't the innate immune system be called 'completely non-specific'?

TLRs recognise certain pathogenic substances

Therefore not specific

24

What is the main role of dendritic cells?

  1. Search for microorganisms
  2. Initiate inflammation
  3. Engulf microorganisms
  4. Process the microoganisms
  5. Express MHC receptors

25

List the main molecular components of the Innate immune response

  • Complement factors
  • Heat shock proteins
  • FC receptors
  • Inflammatory cytokines
  • Histamine

26

List the main cellular components of the innate immune response

  • Macrophages
  • NK cells
  • Granulocytes
  • Dendritic cells
  • Neutrophil
  • Eosinophil
  • Basophil

27

List the main molecular components of the Aquired immune response

  • Antibodies
  • MHC
  • T+B cell receptors
  • Lymphatic cytokines

28

List the main cellular components of the aquired immune response

  • B+T Lymphocytes
  • APCs
    • Dendritic cell
    • Follicular dendritic cell

29

List the main functional characteristics of the aquired immune response

  • Antigen specific
  • Immunological memory
  • Activated after latency period
  • Exponential amplification of reaction

30

Name the three pathways to activate the mechanism of the complement system

  • Classic pathway
  • Alternative pathway
  • Mannose binding lectin activated pathway