Inner Environment Flashcards Preview

Physiology > Inner Environment > Flashcards

Flashcards in Inner Environment Deck (67)
Loading flashcards...
1

Isovolemia

Constant volume

2

Isotonia

Constant osmotic pressure

3

Isoionia

Constant ion composition

4

Isohydria

Constant pH

5

The 'flickering cluster' is used to describe...

The quarternary order of water

7

What are the most important functions of water?

  1. Solvent; a medium for reactions
  2. Source of osmotic forces
  3. Comparment and form

8

Give the water content of blood

90%

9

Give the water content of liver, muscle and brain

70-75%

10

Give the water content of bone

25%

11

Give the water content of fat

10%

12

Give the barriers separating compartments

Cell membranes

Capillary walls

13

Cell membrane

  • Permeable for water without restriction
  • Selective for every other substance

14

Capillary wall

  • Retains colloids
  • Permeable for every other substances
  • >50,000 daltons cannot pass through capillary wall

15

Which parts of the membrane determine transport?

  • Lipid double layer
  • Complex proteins:
    • Receptors
    • Enzymes
    • Carriers
    • Channels

16

What are the types of membrane transport?

  • Passive transport:
    • Simple diffusion
    • Facilitated diffusion
  • Active transport:
    • From direct energy source
    • From indirect energy source

 

17

What is the ratio of extracellular water to intracellular water in the body?

18

Total body water (TBW) =

Extracellular compartment + Intracellular compartment

600-650 ml/bwkg

20

What are the subcompartments of the EC space?

  • Intravasal (circulation)
  • Tissues (interstitial)
  • Transcellular (seperated by epithelial cell layers)

21

Give examples of transcellular extracellular subcompartments

  1. Synovial fluid
  2. Aqueus humour
  3. Glandular discharges
  4. Urinary bladder contents
  5. Gastrointestinal tract
  6. Rumen

22

Intravascular water is divided into...

  • Plasma water
  • Blood cells

23

Interstitium water is split into...

  • Soft tissues
  • Fibrous connective tissue
  • Bone tissue

24

What proportion of body water is in plasma water?

45 ml/bwkg

25

What proportion of body water is in blood cells?

35 ml/bwkg

26

What proportion of body water is in soft tissue?

120-150 ml/bwkg

27

What proportion of body water is in bone tissue?

45 ml/bwkg

28

What proportion of body water is in fibrous connective tissue?

45 ml/bwkg

29

What proportion of water is in the Interstitium?

250 ml/bwkg

30

What proportion of water is in the Trancellular compartment?

15 ml/bwkg

31

When measuring the EC compartment by dilution principle, what are the two phases of dilution of indicator in the extracellular space?

  • Quickly equilibrating space
    • Fast (0.5 - 1 hour)
    • Bloody plasma
    • Interstitium
    • Lymph
  • Slowly equilibrating space
    • Uniform distribution (8-10 hours later)
    • Bone
    • Transcellular space

32

What is the formula for Stewart dilution principle in a living organism?

S = Substance

C= Calculated original concentration

V = Volume