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Flashcards in Respiratory Physiology Deck (212)
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151

Embryonic haemoglobin is less capable of binding...

2,3 DPG

  • Affinity is higher than maternal blood
  • Embryo can easily get O2 from the mother's blood

152

CO binding is...

Irreversible

153

Change of O2 affinity of hemoglobin by myoglobin change

Non-sigmoidal curve

  • Myoglobin takes O2 from Hb, storing it in the muscle

154

The fate of CO2 when it enters the capillary

  • Converted to bicarbonate (with carbonic anhydrase)

or

  • CO2 present in the blood:
    • Physically dissolved
    • Protein-bound

All form an equilibrium

155

H+ produced when CO2 enters the blood is bound by...

Deoxihemoglobin

156

Water + CO2

H2O + CO2 → HCO3- + H+

157

If haemoglobin is not deoxygenated by the tissues...

Removal of CO2 is damaged

158

RBC membrane is impermeable to...

K+

159

Describe the function of capnophorine transporter

  • Exchanges bicarbonate to chloride
  • Ensuring electroneutrality

160

Significant increase in IC Cl- concentration caused by capnophorine leads to...

Hamburger shift

161

Cl- transport into the RBC causes

  • Simultaneous intracellular H2O migration
  • Causes cell volume increase

 

162

What provides the buffer-base effect of blood?

  • Deprotonated hemoglobin
  • Bicarbonate in the plasma

163

Haemoglobin buffer (Tissue)

Deoxyhaemoglobin produced → Hacceptor

164

Haemoglobin buffer (Lung)

  • H+ released from deoxyhaemoglobin
  • Oxyhaemoglobin created at lung-level

165

Carbamino haemoglobin (tissue)

  • From CO2 binding haemoglobin
  • Hdissociates

166

Carbamino haemaglobin (Lung)

  • CO2 released from carbamino haemoglobin
  • Deoxyhaemoglobin uptakes H +

167

Title the figure

CO2 dissociation curve

  • Shows quantity of CO2 transported in the blood
  • As a function of pCO2

168

The haldane effect

  • Increased pO2 → Decreased chemically bound CO2
  • High oxygen tension stimulates CO2 release

169

CO2 concentration in arterial blood

22.1 mmol/l

170

CO2 concentration in venous blood

24.4 mmol/l

171

What is detected during breathing regulation?

Gas tensions of blood

172

Effect of severing: Above the pons

  • [1]
  • No effect

173

Effect of severing: Middle of the pons

  • [2]
  • Deep inspirations
  • Inspiration-inhibiting centre cut

174

Effect of severing: Border of pons and medulla oblongata

  • [3]
  • Deeper + Shallow breathing
  • Apneustic centre
    • Responsible for normal rhythm

175

Effect of severing: Medulla above the exit point of n. phrenicus

  • [4]
  • Respiratory cycle stops
  • Autonomous respiratory group cut
    • DRG (Dorsal respiratory group)
    • VRG (Ventral respiratory group)

176

Effect of severing: below the exit point of n. phrenicus

  • [5]
  • No change is respiration
  • Respiration regulating groups located above this point

177

Effect of cutting n. vagus

Deep inspiration, sudden expiration

178

Hering-breuer reflex

  • Inspiration inhibiting reflex
  • Stretch receptors detect stretching
  • DRG centres recieve afferentation via n. vagus
  • Stimulates VRG

179

Which afferent nervous factors other than Hering-Breur influence respiration?

  • Emotional changes
  • Hyperventialtion
  • Pain
  • Sleeping
  • Baroreceptor-related circulatory/ respiratory reactions

180

Efferent nervous respiratory signals run to the...

Respiratory muscles