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Flashcards in Respiratory Physiology Deck (212)
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31

Describe the effects of gravity in zone 2 of the lung

  • Alveolar capillaries are open during systole
  • Closed during diastole
  • PA>Pa>PV

32

Describe the effects of gravity in zone 3 of the lung

  • Gravity increases BP
  • Alveolar pressure can't compress capillaries
  • During diastole and systole
  • PA>PV>Pa

33

PA=

Alveolar pressure

34

Pa=

Arterial pressure

35

PV=

Venous pressure

36

Which innervation causes pulmonary vessels to enlarge

Parasympathetic (n. vagus)

37

Which innervation causes pulmonary vessels to constrict?

Sympathetic, noradrenergic fibres

(Through α-receptors)

38

Effect of adrenalin on pulmonary circulation

  • Creates intensive alveolar dilation (through β-receptors)
  • Increased ventilation
  • Crucial for anaphylaxis counteraction

39

Local hypoxia in the lungs causes...

Local stenosis → Blood redistribution

40

The effect of BP increase on pulmonary circulation

  • Decreased vascular tone
  • Affects the ability to achieve extremely high minute volume

41

How does the nasal ciliated cylindrical epithelium + blood vessels play a role in organism defence?

  • Mechanically:
    • Mucous motion
    • Coughing
  • Immunologically
    • IgA

42

How does the nasal ciliated cylindrical epithelium + blood vessels play a role in air conditioning?

  • Saturates inspired air with water vapour
  • Warms up the air

43

What is the defensive function of the pharynx?

  • Mucous layer
  • Lymphatic vessels + glands

44

Lower respiratory tract

  • Trachea, its branching and the lungs
  • Function: Filtering and protection

45

Epithelium found in the lower respiratory tract

Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium

Contains goblet cells

46

Goblet cells produce...

Mucine - IgA

47

Cilia of the epithelium are moving in...

Sol phase

48

Terminal bronchiolus

49

Bronchiolus respiratorius

  • Respiratory epithelium appears

50

Give the layers (alveolar) between blood and atmospheric air

  1. Surfactant layer
  2. Alveolar layer
  3. Membrana basalis
  4. Capillary endothel

51

The alveolar wall is built up of which pneumocytes?

  • Epithel → Provides gas exchange
  • T2 → Produce surfactant layer

52

Muscles involved in inspiration

  • Diaphragm
  • External intercostal muscles
  • Abdominal muscles

53

Function of mm. intercostales externi

  • Raise ribs, assist inspiration
  • Parietal region of the diaphragm can dilate easier

54

The collapsing tendency of the lung is due to...

  • The surface tension of alveoli
  • Elastic elements of the lung

55

Total collapse of the lung is prevented by...

Fluid-film between:

  • Visceral pleura
  • Parietal pleura

56

Pause of respiration

The retractive force of lung balanced with the tension of muscles and joints of the chest (rest)

57

Rate of respiration is dependent on...

Metabolic activity

58

Inspiration or expiration?

Inspiration

59

Inspiration or expiration?

Expiration

60

What do the blue lines represent?

Tendon-lamella