respiratory pathology Flashcards Preview

CPR 2nd half > respiratory pathology > Flashcards

Flashcards in respiratory pathology Deck (110)
Loading flashcards...
1

spontaneous vs tension pneumothorax

sp- due to rupture of emphysematous bleb in young adults --> collapses portion of lung and trachea shifts to SIDE OF COLLAPSE (SAME SIDE) ten- penetrating chest injury --> TRACHEA TO OPPOSITE SIDE OF INJURY

2

chronic bronchitis

hypertrophy of bronchial mucinous glands (reid index >50%) chronic productive cough (due to excess mucous production) for atleast 3 months for min of two years, cyanosis (mucus traps co2) associatedw smoking

2

A1AT defficiency

rare cause of emphysema lack of antiprotease leaves air sacs vulnerable to protease mediated damage --> lower lobe pancinar emphysema may cause liver cirhhosis due to mutant A1AT buildup in ER of hepatocytes

3

what triad characterized aspirin intolerant asthma?

asthma aspirin induced bronchospasms nasal polyps

3

what does surfactant do? what happens without?

it decreases surface tension in lungs, preventing collapse of alveolar air sacs after expiration lack of surfactant leads to air sac collapse and formation of hyaline membranes

3

unique site of distant metastasis of lung cancer

adrenal gland

4

bronchiectasis

obstructive; permanent dilation of bronchioles and bronchi due to necrotizing inflammation with damage to airway walls; loss of airway tone --> air trapping presents with cough, dyspnea and foul smelling sputum

5

large cell carcinoma

poorly differentiated large cells NO keratin pearls, mucin, glands, or intercellular bridges POOR PROGNOSIS, central or peripheral

6

primary vs secondary pulmonary hypertension

pri- young adult females, inactivated BMPR2 mutation that causes vascular SM proliferation sec- due to hypoxemia (COPD or interstitial lung disease) or increased volume in the pulmonary circuit (congenital heart disease); may arise from pulmonary embolism

7

central; poorly differentiated small cells from neuroendocrine cells male smokers

small cell carcinoma

7

penumonia like consolidation on imaging with excellent prognosis

bronchioloalveolar carcinoma

8

dysphagia

trouble swallowing

8

risk factors for laryngeal carcinoma?

alcohol tobacco laryngeal papilloma

9

pathogenesis of asthma

type 1 hypersensitivity 1) allergens induce TH2 CD4 t cells 2) TH2 cells secrete IL4 (class switch to IgE), IL5(attract eosinophils), and IL10 (TH2 stimulation and TH1 inhibition) 3) reexposure to allergen leads to IgE mediated mast cell activation 4) histamine release 5) production of leukotrienes C4 D4 and E4 causes bronchoconstriction, inflammation and edema (early rxn) 6) late rxn = inflammation, eosinophil protein, damages cells and perpetuates bronchoconstriction

10

treatment for acute respiratory distress syndrome

treat underlying cause ventilation with + end expiratory pressure (PEEP) damage and loss of type 2 pneumocytes leaves scarring and fibrosis

11

laryngotracheobronchitis

croup upper airway inflammation presents with hoarse, barking cough and inspiratory stridor

11

phases of lobar pneumonia

1) congestion of vessels and edema 2)red hepatization - exudate neutrophils and hemorrhage fill alveolar spaces making lung more solid 3) gray hepatization - degeneration of red cells 4) resolution

12

lung cancer treatment small cell carcinoma vs nonsmall cell carcinoma

SCC - treat with chemo NSCC - treat with surgical resection, not chemo

13

laryngeal papilloma

benign papillary tumor of the vocal cord presents w hoarseness single in adults, multiple in children

13

acute respiratory distress syndrome

alveolar damage; leakage of protein rich fluids leads to edema edema + necrotic epithelial cells = hyaline membranes in alveoli

13

mesothelioma

malignant neoplasm of mesothelial cells associated with occupational asbestos presents with pleural effusions, dyspnea, and chest pain tumor encases the lung

14

who is at risk for aspiration pneumonia? where does it occur usually?

comatose alcoholics right lower lobe due to easier entrance in right mainstem

15

what is asthma associated with?

childhood presentation allergic rhinitis, eczema, family history of atopy

15

squamous cell carcinoma

keratin pearls or intercellular bridges most common tumor in male smokers may produce PTHrP

17

croup is another name for?

laryngotracheobrinchitis

17

penumonia

infection of lung parenchyma when normal defense are impaired; involves alveolar sacs

17

systemic disease with noncaseating granulomas in multuple organs

sarcoidosis

17

what can chronic exposure with hypersensitivity pneumonitis lead to?

interstitial fibrosis

18

three ways to diagnose pneumonia

CXR sputum gram stain and culture blood culture

18

pneumoconioses

restrictive; interstitial fibrosis due to chronic exposure to small fibrogenic particles (carbon/coal, silica, berrylium, asbestos) --> alveolar macrophages engulf foreign particles and induce fibrosis