Histology/Respiratory System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Histology/Respiratory System Deck (68)
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1

two parts of the brain stem

medulla and pons

2

2 parts of medulla

ventral and dorsal respiratory groups

3

2 parts of pons

pneumotaxic center and apneustic center

4

dorsal respiratory group function

drives inspiratory response; communicates w pre-motor neurons

5

what innervates the diaphragm?

phrenic nerve

6

what nerve sends info back to brain for respiratory system?

vagus nerve

7

bronchodilation is caused by

sympathetic nerves

8

bronchoconstriction is caused by

parasympathetic nerves

9

negative pressure allows

gases to fill pleural space

10

quiet inspiration =

muscle action - diaphram moves 1 cm and ribs are lifted by muscles intrathoracic pressure falls and air is inhaled

11

quiet expiration

passive process with no muscle action; uses elastic recoil and alveolar surface tension to pull inward and push air out

12

in forced breathing, which muscles inspire and which expire?

inspiration - sternocleidomastoid, scalenes, pectoralis minor exp -abdominal mm, internal intecostals

13

olfactory epithelium

has: bopolar neurons, supporting cells, stem cells, thin basement membrance, bowmans glands doesnt have: no goblet cells,

14

what muscle underlies true vocal cords?

vocalis muscle

15

false vs true vocal cords

false - before true ones, surface is PCC, core of serous glands true - right before trachea (after false ones), surface is stratified squamous epithelium, core = vocalis muscle

16

path after mouth -->

pharynx, larynx, then trachea

17

tracheal cartilage C rings are

in the front, back is attached by trachealis muscle - which allows esophagus to expand as food passes by

18

respiratory epithelium is =

pseudostratified ciliated columnar (PCC) epithelium

19

how to tell difference between bronchi and bronchioles?

bronchioles do NOT have cartilage

20

when bronchus turns into bronchiole...

cartilage disappears and then there is just smooth muscle no opening into alveoli yet fewer ciliated cells, no goblet cells new cell = CLARA cells

21

clara cells

bronchiolar expocrine cells with microvilli secrete surfactant , CC16 (modulates inflammation), and detox using p450 enzymes

22

requirements for efficient gas exchange

large area for diffusion minimal distance match ventilation and blood flow

23

termoinal bronchus leads to -->

lobular bronchiole --> terminal bronchiole --> respiratory bronchiole --> alveolar duct -> alveolar sac

24

pulmonary resistance is ____ compared to systemic resistance

low

25

as PO2 drops in an alveolus,

resistance in arterioles increase (perfusion to non ventilated sections!) and when alveoli is higher in Pressure than the capillaries, the air pressure can collapse the capillaries

26

west zones of lung pressure top, middle, bottom?

top - alveolar >arterial > venous middle: arterial > alveolar > venous bottom: arterial > venous > alveolar

27

type 1 vs type 2 pneumocytes

1 - squamous cells, flatter 2- larger and produce surfactant, rounder

28

what are alveolar cells called?

type 1 and 2 pneumocytes

29

type 2 alveolar cell/pneumocyte

"septal cell" secretes surfactant develops late in pregnancy premature baby ---> deficient surfactant --> respiratory distress syndrome or hyaline membrane disease

30

dust cells

alveolar macrophages