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Flashcards in Qualitative methods Deck (18)
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1

What are qualitative methods?

-Concerned with meanings and experiences
-Tend to explore questions rather than investigate variables and hypotheses
-Data is naturalistic
-Recognises subject meanings
-Generates theory
-Can be used alongside quntitative methods

2

What common methods are used?

-Interviews
-Focus groups
-Diaries
-Participants observation
-Written resources

-Small number of participants
-Ethics needs to be considered

3

What are the two types of interviews?

Unstructured and semi-structured

4

What is an unstructured interview?

No set questions, interview flows. Discuss broad topics

5

What is a semi-structured interview?

Questions are set by the researcher as a guide. Most common and fairly practical

6

What is a focus group?

-A group interview
-Participant interaction is a source of data
-Similar to semi-structured interviews
-Less artificial than 1:1 interview
-Less appropriate for sensitive or intimate topics

7

Types of focus groups: homogenous vs heterogenous

Participants share key features vs. participants are different

8

Types of focus groups: pre-existing group vs new group

e.g. friends/work friends vs. people who have never met

9

Types of focus groups: concerned by naïve

Subject matter is important to them vs no connection to the subject matter

10

What should be considered in an interview design?

-Use an interview schedule
-Small number of open ended questions
-Non-prescriptive: act as a guide, can skip questions, may add questions

11

How many questions should you use in an interview?

-Fully cover the research topic
-Realistic amount for the available time
-When to include demographics?

12

What order should you ask questions?

-Introduction - at the start
-More personal questions when the participant is comfortable
-Bring back up to less depth at the end
-Consider whether there is a natural flow

13

Types of questions: descriptive

ask participants to give a general account of something e.g. What happened the last time you witnessed harassment?

14

Types of questions: structural

find out about the way a participant makes sense of the world, the frameworks they use to think about the world
e.g. How did you decide whether to intervene?

15

Types of questions: contrast

prompt participant to compare events and experiences e.g. Can you tell me about another time you witnessed harassment
– what was different about it?

16

Types of questions: evaluative

ask how a participant feels towards something e.g. Did you feel happy about how the situation ended?

17

How should questions be worded?

-Motivating - make sure it is interesting
-Clear - not too long or double barrelled
-Relevant to aims - no surprise questions
-Be neutral
-Have a shared meaning - participants can understand you

18

What are some key concerns in an interview?

-Who to interview and why?
-Awareness of social identities (consider gender, nationality, class and age)
-Linguistic variability (some words don't mean the same thing)