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Flashcards in Questionnaire development Deck (20)
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What is important to consider when writing your questions?

-Be specific as you can with the wording
-If a timescale is relevant, be specific
-Avoid double negative questions
-Avoid double barrelled questions (two issues)
-Don't induce a particular response
-Be ethical


What are the two types of responses?

Open and closed


What is an open question?

-Allows for an unconstrained response
-Gives rich detail about the topic
-However more difficult to summarise


What is a closed question?

-Requires a choice from a predetermined option
-Easy to code and summarise options


Why would you want to create a questionnaire?

-There is no existing measure
-Or an existing measure is flawed


Advantages of open questions

 Respondent is not forced to choose between options
 Respondent can give explanations for responses
 Respondent can give additional information they feel is relevant or important to their response


Disadvantages of closed questions

 Respondent can give additional information they feel is relevant or important to their response
 BUT: What if that information is not relevant to the survey?
 More time consuming for respondent
 Analysis is more complex and time consuming for you


Types of closed questions?

-Categorical (male vs female)
-Likert scale
-Ranking (rank from favourite to least favourite)


What should be considered about categorical responses?

-Need to be mutually exclusive (e.g. answers should not cross over)
-If there are multiple answers, need to be clear on how many to select
-Think about if you need a 'other' - how would you analyse this?


What is an item?

-asking the responder the extent to which they agree with a statement
 I like to have a lot of people around me
 Response: “strongly disagree” through to “strongly agree”


What is a question?

Asking a more explicit question
 Do you like to have a lot of people around you?  Response: “not at all” through to “very much”


What should be considered with likert scales?

-Usually 5 responses but can be more or less
-Can include a neutral but needs to be in the middle
-Can start at 0 or 1 but needs to be consistent
-Do no show the numbers


How can you avoid random responses?

-Acquiescence bias (always agreeing with items)
 Ensure the questionnaire is not too long
 Positive and negatively marked items


What should be considered with positive and negative scoring?

-Only show participants the words
-Have an equal amount of positive and negative
-Randomise the order of the positive and negative responses


What is a visual analogue scale?

-Lines are typically 100mm
-Provides scores 0-100
-More fine measure, parametric and less prone to responder bias
-Can be positive or negative


How should a questionnaire be ordered?

-Put demographics at the beginning or end
-Most important first
-Don't start with sensitive items
-Go from general to particular
-Factual to abstract
-Closed to open


Why does a questionnaire need to be valid?

To ensure that it's measuring what you set out to measure


Why does a questionnaire need to be reliable?

To provide a consistent measure


Why would you use subscales?

If there is a large number of questions, you can group them into themes


How can you measure validity and reliability?

Cronbach's alpha