Standardization refers to 2 characteristics of a test:
- Standardized when the administration & scoring procedures are clearly defined (fixed).
- Standardized when it has been administered under standard conditions to a representative sample for the purpose of establishing norms.
Permit comparisons between an examinee's test performance & the performance of individuals in the norm group.
(Ex: Percentile Ranks & Standard Scores)
Permit interpreting an examinee's test performance in terms of what they can do or knows with regard to a clearly defined content domain or in terms of performance or status on an external criterion.
(aka Domain/Content Referenced Scores)
Provided by ipsative scales & permit intraindividual comparisons (i.e. comparisons of an examinee's score on one scale with his/her scores on other scales.)
Focuses on overt & covert behaviors that occur in specific circumstances & may utilizes various techniques including:
- Behavioral interviews,
- Behavioral observation,
- Cognitive Assessments (thought sampling/protocol analysis) and/or
- Psychophysiological Measures.
Functional Behavioral Assessment (FBA)
(Behavioral assessment) to determining the Fx/purpose of a behavior by ID & altering the antecedents & consequences that are maintaining an undesirable behavior.
Goal is to ID strategies for decreasing/eliminating a target behavior
Derived from Vygotsky's (1962) method for evaluating a child's mental development & involves an interactive approach & deliberate deviation from standardized testing procedures to obtain additional info. about an examinee &/or determine if he/she would benefit from assistance or instruction.
- Graduated Prompting: Involves giving the examinee a series of verbal promts that are graduated in terms of difficulty level.
- Test-Teach-Retest: Involves following the inital assessment with an intervention designed to modify the examinee's performance and then re-assessing the examinee.
Testing the Limits
A type of dynamic assessment, involves providing an examinee with additional cues, suggestions, or feedback & is ordinarily done after standard administration of the test to preserve the applicability of the test's norms
Computer Adaptive Testing (CAT)
An advantage of CAT is that it tailors the test to the individual examinee by choosing subsequent items based on his/her previous answers.
Primary advantages are precision & efficiency
Actuarial (Statistical) Predictions
Actuarial predictions are based on empirically validated relationships btwn test results & target criteria & make use of a multiple regression equation or similar techniques.
Research found that actuarial predicitons alone tend to be more accurate than clinical judgment (predicitions) alone.
Based on the decision-maker's intuition, experience, and knowledge. In other words the clinican's judgement (classifications, diagnoses, & predicitions about behavior).
Assessing Members of Culturally Diverse Populations
Factors that must be considered include:
- The individuals acculturation
- Racial/ethnic identity
- Language proficency
- Avalibility of appropriate norms
- Cultural equivalence of the content/construct measured by the test
- Avalibility of alternatives that are more appropriate for the client's background whenever possible.
Spearman's Two Factor Theory
Based on his observation that various measures of intelligence correlate to some degree w/each other, Spearman (1927) proposed a general intellectual factor (g) & argued that performance on any cognitive task depends on g plus 1 or more speciﬁc factors (s) unique to the task.
Horn & Cattell's Crystallized and Fluid Intelligence
Horn and Cattell (1966) proposed that general intelligence can be described in terms of 2 primary types of cognitive abilities:
Crystallized Intelligence (Gc): refers to acquired knowledge & skills, & is affected by educational & cultural experiences, & includes reading & numberical skills & factual knowledge.
- Increases till age 60
Fluid Intelligence (Gf): enables an individual to solve novel probs. & perceive relations & similarities, & does not depend on specific instruction, is relatively culture-free.
- Peaks in late adolesc. then declines
Carroll's Three-Stratum Theory
Carroll (1997) distinguished btwn 3 levels or strata of intelligence.
- Stratum III is g (general intelligence);
- Stratum II consists of 8 broad abilities including:
- Fuid intelligence,
- Crystallized intelligence, and
- General memory & learning; and
- Stratum I consists of specific abilities that are each linked to one of the 2nd stratum abilities.
Ex: Crystallized intelligence is linked to language development, comprehension, spelling ability, and communication ability.
McGrew's Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) Theory of Cognitive Abilities
McGrew (1997) combined elements of the Horn-Cattell & Carroll approaches to derive the CHC model, which was developed on the basis of extensive empirical research & serves as the framework for the:
- KABC-II and
- Woodcock-Johnson III.
Distinguishes btwn 10 broad-stratum level abilities & over 70 narrow-straturn abilities that are each linked to one of the broad-stratum abilities.
McGrew acknowledges the existence of g. it is omitted from his theory bc of his belief that it does not contribute to psychoeducational assessment practice.
Guilford's Convergent & Divergent Thinking
Guilford's (1967) structure-of-intellect model distinguishes between:
- Convergent Thinking: Relies on rational, logical reasoning & involves the use of logical judgement & consideration of facts to derive the correct solution to a problem.
- Divergent Thinking: Involves non-logical processes & requires creativity & flexibility to derive multiple solutions.
Theory states that most intelligence tests focus on convergent.
Sternberg's Triarchic Theory
Sternberg's (1999) triarchic theory defines "successful intelligence" as the ability to adapt, to modify, and choose environments that accomplish one's goals and the goals of society and proposes that it is composed of 3 abilities:
Traditional intelligence tests focus on analytical abilities but neglect creative & practical abilities, important contributors to academic & occupational achievement.
Gardner's Multiple Intelligences
(Gardner, 1998) Rejected the traditional view of intelligence as being too narrow, & his theory of multiple intelligences distinguishes btwn 8 types of cognitive ability:
- Intrapersonal, and
Gardner contends that everyone possesses all intelligences to some degree & that the intelligences are not static but can be developed by exposure to appropriate learning experiences.
Heredity and Intelligence
Studies show correlations between the IQ scores of ppl w/varying degrees of genetic & environmental similarity are used to demonstrate the impact of heredity on intelligence.
The studies have found that, the closer the genetic similarity btwn ppl the higher the correlation coefficent between their IQ test scores.
Ex: The correlation for identical twins reared together, r = .85
Vs.: Identical twins reared apart, r = .67 & Biological siblings reared together, r = .45
Research by Flynn (1987) & others conducted prior to 2000 found that IQ test scores have consistently increased over the past 70 years in the U.S. & other industrialized countries.
This increase is referred to as the Flynn effect, involves a rate of at least 3 IQ points per decade, & is apparently due primarily to increases in fluid intelligence.
Recent research suggests, however, that the Flynn effect has reversed in some countries and, in the U.S., for individuals with IQs of 110 and above.
Aging and Crystallized & Fluid Intelligence
Horn (1989) proposed that:
- Crystallized intelligence increases until about age 60, while
- Fluid intelligence peaks in late adolescence & thereafter declines.
Increasing age is assoc. w/decreases in speed of info. processing as well as declines in fluid (vs. crystallized) intelligence.
Aging and Intelligence - Processing Speed
Decline in fluid intelligence in adulthood has been linked to age-related declines in the efficiency of working memeory that, have been attributed to declines in processing speed.
Increasing age is also assoc. w/a decline in speed of information processing & intelligence but, for some adults, declines may be reversed w/relatively simple training & practice.
Seattle Longitudinal Study
Schaie et al., found that a cross-sectional design is more likely to find early age-related declines in IQ bc it is more vulnerable to the confounding effects of educational & other differences btwn different age groups ("cohort/intergenerational effects").
It utilized a cross-sequential design (which combines cross-sectional and longitudinal methodologies) & found that, of the 6 primary mental abilities, only perceptual speed declined substantially prior to age 60.
In contrast, numeric ability did not show a significant decline until after age 60, & the other 4 abilities remained fairly stable until about age 70 or 75.
Research by K.W. Schaie (1983) on age & intelligence provided support for which of the following theories of intelligence?
A. Guilford's convergent & divergent thinking
B. Spearman's "g" factor
C. Thurstone's primary mental abilites
D. Luria's simultaneous & successive processing
C. Thurstone's primary mental abilites - Schaie used a cross-sequential design to examine the effects of age on 6 primary mental abilities:
- Verbal Ability
- Inductive Reasoning
- Verbal Memory
- Spatial Orientation
- Numeric Ability
- Perceptual Speed
The research found that the effects of increasing age differd for each ability, therby confirming Thurstone's theory that intelligence consists of several broad factors rather than a single "g" factor.
Gender-Related Differences in Cognitive Ability
On measures of specific cognitive abilities, most studies have found that:
- Females do better on some tests of verbal ability
- Males do better on certain measures of spatial & quantitative skills
- Spatial skills how the largest gender gap
Types of Test Bias (Slope & Intercept)
Slope and intercept biases are types of test bias that can invalidate the interpretation of test scores for members of certain grps. Several experts argue that cognitive ability tests are biased against members of certain groups.
- Slope Bias: occurs when there is differential validity (i.e., when the validity coefficient for a Predictor/test differ for different groups; CAT's). Predictor is more accurate for 1 grp vs the other.
- Intercept Bias: (unfairness) occurs when the validity coefficients & criterion performance for different grps are the same, but their mean scores on the predictor differ for different groups.
Stanford-Binet, 5th Edition (SB5 - Age Range, Cognitive Factors, Routing Subtests)
The SB5 (Stanford-Binet, 5th Edition) is an individually administered intelligence test for individuals ages 2 - 85+ yrs.
Designed to measure:
- General cognitive abilities &
- To assist in psychoeducational evaluation,
- Dx of devel. disabilities & exceptionalities, &
- Forensic, career, neurosych, & early childhood assessment.
Based on a hierarchical model of intelligence that includes "g" (general mental ability) & 5 cognitive factors:
- Fluid Reasoning (FR),
- Knowledge (KN),
- Quantitative Reasoning (QR),
- Visual-Spatial Processing (VS), and
- Working Memory (WM).
Administration of the SB5 is tailored to the examinee's level of cognitive functioning through the use of 2 routing subtest:
- Object Series/Matrices (NV - Non-verbal) &
- Vocabulary - (V)
which indicate the appropriate starting point for the remaining subtests based on age or est. ability level.
Admin. of each of the functional subtests begins at a level slightly below the examinee's ability level as determined by his/her performance on the routing subtests.
The Full Scale IQ & Factor scores have a mean of 100 & standard deviation of 15, & the subtest scores have a mean of 10 and standard deviation of 3.
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-IV) - (Age Range, FSIQ, Indexes)
The WAIS-IV (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, 4th Edition) is an individually administered intelligence test.
Ages: 16:0 to 90:11 (Hierarchical Model).
A method of assessing intellectual ability & views intelligence as a global ability comprised of numerous interrelated Fx that allow the indiv. "to act purposefully, to think rationally, & to deal effectively with their environment."
Provides a Full Scale IQ (FSIQ), scores on four Indexes:
- Working Memory Index (WMI)
- Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI)
- Processing Speed Index (PSI)
- Perceptual Reasoning Index (PRI), and
- Scores on 10 core & 5 supplemental subtests.
The FSIQ & Index scores have a mean of 100 & SD of 15;
The subtests have a mean of 10 & SD of 3.
The FSIQ should be interpreted w/caution when there is a diff of SD of 1.5 or more bwtween any 2 index scores.
Ex: Samples of indiv. w/mild Alzhiemers dementia, Najor depression, ADHD & TBI obtained the lowest score on the processing speed index.
Object Assembly subtest is a measure of visual-motor speed & coordination & the ability to see part/whole relationships.
WAIS-IV Verbal-Performance Discrepancy
One method for interpreting test scores is to consider the discrepancy btwn:
- Verbal IQ
- Performance IQ
A discrepancy of 12 pts. or more is statistically significant but a diff. of 17 pts. is abnormal.
A higher Verbal IQ suggests Right Hemisphere damage, neurosis or psychosis.
A higher Performance IQ may indicate Left Hemisphere damage, educational deficits or sociopathy.