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An individual imagining others engaging in a variety of alternative or desirable behaviors is using the technique known as:
A. overcorrection
B. simple modeling
C. covert sensitization
D. covert modeling

D. covert modeling
Covert modeling is based on its overt, simple modeling equivalent. Covert modeling involves the learning of new behaviors or the altering of existing behaviors by imagining scenes of others interacting with the environment. Overcorrection (a.) involves an individual consistently being reinforced for engaging in behaviors other than the target behavior during a predetermined period of time. Covert sensitization (c.) uses counterconditioning in imagination to reduce or eliminate a target behavior. An individual imagines he/she is engaging in the undesirable behavior and then imagines an aversive consequence for doing so.


In regard to sensory memory, information is retained for
A. less than two seconds.
B. less than twenty seconds.
C. a few minutes, if using rehearsal techniques.
D. an indefinite amount of time, but it is difficult to access.

A. less than two seconds.
Sensory memory holds information from the senses for a very brief period of time--generally less than two seconds. It is not held any longer than this, even with rehearsal techniques (answer C). While some researchers hypothesize that information is retained in long-term memory indefinitely but may be difficult to acccess, this is not a characteristic of sensory memory.


An adolescent swearing with friends but not when around adults is example of:
A. response generalization
B. stimulus generalization
C. stimulus discrimination
D. overcorrection

C. stimulus discrimination
Discrimination and generalization refer to the differences in precision of stimulus control, or the ability of a stimulus to alter the probability of a response. Response probabilities vary with different contexts, discriminative stimuli, and reinforcement contingencies (e.g., what is likely to be rewarded, ignored, or punished). In this case, the adolescent behaves differently in one context (with friends) than in another context (with adults). Friends are a discriminative stimulus in which the response of swearing is more likely to occur. Overcorrection (d.) is a
technique that is used to reduce an undesirable behavior and replace it with a more desirable one.


Feature integration theory predicts that the perception of an object as an entity rather than as a cluster of unrelated features depends on:
A. focused attention.
B. integrated attention.
C. selective attention.
D. divided attention.

A. focused attention.
Feature integration theory is what it sounds like. It's a theory about how an object's features are integrated, and it proposes that focused visual attention is required for perception of an object to occur.


Stimulus A is paired with stimulus B. Stimulus B is then paired with stimulus C until stimulus C elicits the same response that was elicited by stimulus A. This is an example of:
A. chaining
B. shaping
C. secondary reinforcement
D. higher-order conditioning

D. higher-order conditioning
Higher-order conditioning is a classical conditioning procedure in which two stimuli (CS and US) are paired until the conditioned stimulus (CS) produces the conditioned response (CR) and then the CS (which is now referred to as a US) is paired with another CS to elicit the same response. All of the other choices in this question are operant conditioning terms. Operant conditioning involves behaviors and the consequences that follow, rather than the pairing of stimuli. Chaining (A) is the operant procedure that enables complex behaviors to develop through reinforcement of a sequence of simple behaviors. That is, Behavior A is followed by a reinforcer, which serves as a discriminative stimulus for Behavior B, which is followed by a reinforcer, and so on. Shaping (B) involves reinforcing successive approximations of a desired behavior.


A loss of memory for autobiographical information is referred to as:
A. functional amnesia
B. anterograde amnesia
C. retrograde amnesia
D. malingering

A. functional amnesia
Functional amnesia is a condition, caused by a psychological trauma, in which individuals are unable to remember significant events in their lives, i.e., autobiographical information. Anterograde amnesia (B) is an impaired ability to form new permanent memories. Retrograde amnesia (C) is an inability to recall previous memories (i.e., for events that occurred prior to a head trauma), and is not necessarily for, or limited to, autobiographical information. Someone who is malingering (D) could feign memory loss for autobiographical memories; however, most cases of autobiographical memory loss are not due to malingering.


Which of the following is NOT true regarding a variable ratio schedule of reinforcement?
A. It generates a high and constant rate of responding.
B. It produces behaviors that are the most resistant to extinction.
C. The relationship between the behavior and reinforcement is unpredictable.
D. It produces the "scallop effect," with a decreased rate of response following reinforcement.

D. It produces the "scallop effect," with a decreased rate of response following reinforcement.
In the variable ratio schedule, reinforcement occurs after a variable number of responses. The variable ratio has been found to result in a high and constant rate of response (A) and, compared to the other schedules of reinforcement, the responses are the most resistant to extinction (B). Since it is a variable schedule, the relationship between the behavior and reinforcement is unpredictable (C), which contributes to the above characteristics. However, the scallop effect (D), in which the response rate drops after each reinforcement and increases just before reinforcement is due, is characteristic of fixed schedules, especially the fixed interval schedule.


Large amounts of information can be kept in short-term memory through the use of:
A. the "savings" method.
B. eidetic memory.
C. chunking.
D. mnemonics.

C. chunking.
The classic finding in the area of research into short-term memory (STM) is the "7 +/- 2" finding; i.e., that STM has the capacity of storing 7 plus or minus 2 pieces of information at one time. Chunking is a technique designed to increase the amount of information that can be kept in STM -- it involves grouping larger amount of information into single chunks. In other words, STM is used to store 7 +/- 2 chunks rather than 7 +/- 2 isolated bits of information. Mnemonics (choice D) are used to increase the efficiency of encoding newly learned information, which increases the ease with which that information is retrieved from long-term memory.


A 17-year-old male involved in a skateboarding accident suffered a head trauma resulting in deficits to his declarative memory. He would likely have the most difficulty:
A. riding a skateboard
B. recalling when he rode his first skateboard at 10-years-old
C. recalling his own name
D. recalling what he ate for lunch yesterday

D. recalling what he ate for lunch yesterday
Declarative or explicit memories are long-term memories that one can consciously recall. They include semantic (factual information) and episodic (personally experienced) memories. Riding a skateboard (A) requires procedural memory. All of the other choices require explicit memory; however, memory deficits due to head trauma or disease usually affect recent long-term memory before affecting remote long-term memory.


Thinning refers to the process of:
A. switching from a fixed interval to a fixed ratio schedule
B. switching from a variable interval to a variable ratio schedule
C. switching from an intermittent to a continuous schedule
D. switching from a continuous to an intermittent schedule

D. switching from a continuous to an intermittent schedule
Continuous schedules, or reinforcing every response, are associated with quick learning, satiation and extinction. The process of thinning, or switching from a continuous to an intermittent schedule, is used to increase the resistance to extinction once a behavior is established.


Bandura's research looking at the impact of punishing a model for acting aggressively on male and female observers showed that
A. when the model is punished, male and female children are more likely to act aggressively than when the model is rewarded.
B. when the model is punished, performance (but not learning) of aggressive behaviors is reduced.
C. when the model is punished, learning and performance of aggressive behaviors are both reduced.
D. when the model is punished, male and female children are less likely to agree that aggressiveness is acceptable.

B. when the model is punished, performance (but not learning) of aggressive behaviors is reduced.
In his work on observational learning, Bandura found evidence for his theory that learning and performance are separate phenomena and that learning can occur without reinforcement. For example, in the study described in this question, children learned aggressive responses by watching an aggressive model (even when the model was punished) and, consequently, were able to imitate the aggressive behavior when told they would be rewarded for doing so. Interestingly, boys (but not girls) who were rewarded for imitating the aggressive model were more likely to do so when the model had been punished than when the model had been rewarded.


From the perspective of Bandura's social learning theory, "functional value" refers to:
A. external reinforcements.
B. anticipated consequences.
C. self-efficacy beliefs.
D. relationship to previous learning.

B. anticipated consequences.
Functional value is pretty much what it sounds like. According to Bandura, a behavior has functional value when the person anticipates that performing it will result in desirable consequences (i.e., when the behavior serves a function).