Flashcards in Retired Exam 1 Deck (18)
1. Individuals with Moderate Mental Retardation:
A. Constitute 2% - 3% of the mentally retarded population.
B. Can be trained to perform unskilled work under close supervision.
C. Usually acquire academic skills up to approximately eighth-grade level.
D. Display minimal or no impairment in sensorimotor functioning.
B. Can be trained to perform unskilled work under close supervision - Correct
2. Persons who have work-related accidents tend to:
A. Feel more dissatisﬁed with their work than accident-free workers.
B. Be less likely to have had job promotions than accident-free workers.
C. Have had more recent life stress than accident-free workers.
D. Be, on the average, less intelligent than accident-free workers.
C. Have had more recent life stress than accident-free workers - Correct
3. Experimental studies of the relation between level of motivation and level of performance have shown that:
A. The higher the intensity or degree of motivation, the better the level of performance.
B. For a given task, there is an optimal level of motivation.
C. Motivation is important to learning but not to performance.
D. Optimal performance is obtained relatively more often by internalizers than by externalizers
B. For a given task, there is an optimal level of motivation - Correct
4. The items for a machinist proﬁciency test have been based on a job analysis of machinists in 50 plants, each employing ﬁve or more machinists doing comparable work. Such a procedure would contribute directly to the tests:
A. Concurrent validity.
B. Predictive validity.
C. Empirical validity.
D. Content validity.
D. Content validity - Correct
5. A mother complains that her 15-year-old daughter "lives like a pig, she is so sloppy and dirty." She adds, "The more I yell at her, the worse she gets." In operant conditioning terms, the yelling can best be explained as:
A. Positive reinforcement.
C. Negative reinforcement.
D. A discriminating stimulus for the sloppy behavior.
A. Positive reinforcement - Correct
6. While the nature and extent of measured intellectual decline during aging is not well established, a consistent ﬁnding is a/an:
A. Increase in problem-solving ability.
B. Increase in word ﬂuency.
C. Decrease in vocabulary.
D. Increase in response time.
D. Increase in response time - Correct
7. Which of the following is the strongest evidence of patient's addiction to a substance?
A. Physiological tolerance and withdrawal
B. A positive urine test for the substance
C. Serious occupational impairment
D. Denial of any involvement with the substance
A. Physiological tolerance and withdrawal - Correct
8. A psychologist is appointed by the Court to examine a defendant the psychologic should:
A. Begin the evaluation by informing the defendant that that anything discussed may be talked about in open court.
B. Begin the evaluation by asking the defendant to indicate information that should be kept confidential.
C. Refuse to do the evaluation unless the Court agrees that it will be kept conﬁdential.
D. Discus conﬁdentiality only if the defendant asks about it.
A. Begin the evaluation by informing the defendant that that anything discussed may be talked about in open court - Correct
9. If the objective of psychological research conducted in a laboratory dictate that certain information be withheld from the participant, consent by the participant:
A. May be waived provided written consent is obtained from a member of the participant's immediate family.
B. is not necessary, but some explanation of the research situation to the participant is essential.
C. is necessary, and an explanation of signiﬁcant aspects that might affect, willingness to participate must be provided.
D. Is considered essential only if there is possible risk of physical or psychological harm.
C. is necessary, and an explanation of signiﬁcant aspects that might affect, willingness to participate must be provided - Correct
10. Which of the following is the most common neuropsychological complication of AIDS?
A. Impaired attention and speed of information processing
B. Impaired cognitive ﬂexibility
D. Impaired visuospatial constructions
C. Dementia - Correct
11. From a Jungian standpoint, which of the following phenomena is taking place when contents of either the personal or collective unconscious are: projected onto the analyst?
B. Anima-animus conﬂict
D. Exchange of symbols
A. Transference - Correct
12. The function of the correction for attenuation is to:
A. Provide an estimate of the predictive validity of a test that is independent of chance actors in any specific validation sample.
B. Show how adding or subtracting items affects the reliability of a test.
C. Estimate the correlation between two variables if one or both could be measured without error.
D. Correct an obtained correlation coefﬁcient for restriction of range in either variable.
C. Estimate the correlation between two variables if one or both could be measured without error - Correct
13. A research study is carried out to investigate the effects of four different psychological treatments designed to reduce test anxiety in college students. A significant treatment effect is noted, along with one signiﬁcant second-order interaction effect. A member of the research team suggests that the interactive effect not be reported since it is tangential to the main purpose of the study. This suggestion is:
A. Representative of a methodological issue and needs to be evaluated from a scientiﬁc perspective.
B. Clearly unethical, since it conflicts with the psychologist’s responsibility to report completely the results of the research projects
C. Possibly unethical, but difficult to deﬁne because the situation is not noted in the ethics codes published by the American and Canadian Psychological Associations.
D. An example of poor professional judgment bur essentially unrelated to professional ethic.
B. Clearly unethical, since it conflicts with the psychologist’s responsibility to report completely the results of the research projects - Correct
14. Which of the following statements best paraphrase Thorndike’s Law of Effect?
A. All behavior is caused; everything that is done has an effect on behavior.
B. Elimination of the unconditioned stimulus or the reward results in a decreased frequency of behavior.
C. A positive correlation exists between responding and aversive stimulation.
D. A reward tends to increase the probability of recurrence of the response that it follows.
D. A reward tends to increase the probability of recurrence of the response that it follows - Correct
15. In a personality inventory, some examinees can fake "good". What testing technique is probably the best correction for this response bias?
A. Increasing the length of the test
B. Increasing the homogeneity of the test
C. Employing a right-minus-wrong correction formula
D. Using an empirically derived correction
D. Using an empirically derived correction - Correct
16. Children take their first steps around the age of:
A. 6 months.
B. 9 months.
C. 12 months.
D. 18 months.
3. 12 months - Correct
17. Exposing individuals to arguments against their views, arguments that are then strongly refuted, may serve to:
A. Increase their attitudinal ambivalence.
B. Weaken their resistance to later persuasive appeals.
C. Render them indifferent to the attitude object.
D. Inoculate them against later persuasive appeals.
4. Inoculate them against later persuasive appeals - Correct