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Flashcards in Primates Deck (76)
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1

How many species are found within this order ?

424 species

2

Describe the adaptions of the early primates.

Arboreal, Flexible limbs, Prehensile hands and feet, Claws, tails

3

As the primates developed what happened to their claws ?

They developed into nails.

4

What toe adaption do all primates have, barring humans ?

A big toe that is separated from the other toes,
Enables grip on branches

5

Which species have an opposable thumb and what is it ?

Monkeys and apes
Where the ventral surface of the thumb can touch the ventral surface of each of the fingers on the same hand.

6

Early primates were insectivorous.
What dental adaptions did they have ?

Primitive triangular shaped molars.

7

Describe the dental evolution of primates as they became omnivores.

Molars became square
Bunodont (4 cusps)
To facilitate crushing of food.

8

What happened to the optic adaptions of primates over evolution ?

Eyes face forwards, To enable judgement of distances,
Have stereoscopic vision (3D)

9

What happened to the primates cerebellum (back brain) over evolution ?

Cerebellum became enlarged
More precise muscular movements

10

What happened to the cerebrum (anterior brain) over evolutions

Cerebrum became enlarged
Greater mental powers, basis of social grouping.

11

What is the maximum likelihood phylogeny ?

A phylogeny based on 35 thousand base pairs,

12

What 2 suborders are the primates split into ?

Strepsirrhini and the Haplorrhini

13

What does RRHINI mean ?

Muzzle

14

What did the maximum likelihood phylogeny reveal ?

Other groupings between sub order and family
Such as infraorder and parvorder

15

Which is the more primitive suborder of primates ?

The Strepsirrhini

16

Describe the features of the Strepsirrhini,

Longer snouts (stretch-muzzle)
Better smell
Smaller brains

17

Give the species contained within the Strepsirrhini.

Lorises, bush babies and pottos, aye aye and lemurs.

18

How many families of lemur exist ?

4

19

Why did the lemurs undergo such major adaptive radiation ?

Isolated from the African mainland on the island of Madagascar 80 million years ago.

20

Describe an extinct species of lemur

Giant sloth lemur
Bigger than a sliver back gorilla

21

What is the main threat to the extant species of lemur ?

Deforestation

22

Describe the mating habits of lemurs

Monogamous

23

How do we know that lemurs are a primitive species ?

Some claws remain, mainly nails
Molars are triangular, with hints of bunodont
Mainly arboreal (except ring tailed lemur)

24

Describe the vision of lemurs.

Binocular field of vision
1140 130 degrees in comp. to most monkeys 140-169.

25

Describe the main dental features of the Aye Aye

Continually growing incisors for chiselling bark (rodent like)

26

How does the Aye Aye feed ?

By drumming on tree bark to locate insect larvae
Chiselling bark using incisors
Using slender middle finger to consume insect and fruit larvae.

27

Which digits do Aye ayes have claws on ?

All digits, expect big toes which have nails.

28

List the 'other groupings' found within the Suborder Haplorrhini

Infraorder Tarsiiformes
Infraorder Simiiformes
Parvorder Platyrrhini
Parvoder Catarrhini

29

Where are Tarsiiformes found ?

Found in south east Asia

30

Which infraorder are the Tarsiiformes more closely related to ?

Simiiformes (monkeys, apes, humans)