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Mammalian Diversity > Eulipotyphla > Flashcards

Flashcards in Eulipotyphla Deck (26)
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1

What are the characteristics of the organisms in this group ?

Primitive, due to retention of ancestral eutherian features

2

Describe the eutherian brain.

It is small, with a smooth cerebrum

3

They are nocturnal. True or false ?

True, they have poor vision.

4

Describe the dental adaption of the Eulipotyphla

Many teeth, generally 44.
This is a retention of the ancestral eutherians.

5

Give 3 characteristics of the reproductive organs

Cloaca- Gametes, urine, faeces
True Placenta
Intra-abdominal testes- no scrotum (external sac)

6

What is the dental trend in most mammals ?

A decrease in teeth, Eulipotyphla buck this trend

7

Give the issues associated with a high surface area to volume ration

Rapid loss of heat
Some organisms require almost continuous food.
High Respiration rate

8

Give an example of a species with a particularly high surface area to volume ratio

Shrew
Consume own mass in insects and worms each day
High resp. rate= 5000 cu/kg/hr
Humans= 200 cu/kg/hr

9

Give the families contained within this order.

Shrews
Solenodons
Hedgehogs and moon rats
Moles and Desmans

10

How many sub families and species of shrew exist ?

3 sub families
384 species

11

Why do shrews emit ultrasonic clicks ?

As a crude form of echolocation.

12

Give the diet of shrews

Insects and other invertebrates
Venomous bite- enables immobilisation of larger items, frog,

13

Give the smallest terrestrial mammal and its weight

Pygmy white toothed shrew, 2g

14

Give a similarity between shrews and Solenodons.

Both in the order Eulipotyphla
Crude echolocation
Toxic saliva to immobilise prey

15

What is special about the snout of the Hispaniola Solenodon ?

Cartilaginous snout
Articulates with the skull via a ball and socket joint

16

List the threats to the critically endangered Solenodon.

introduction of rats, cats, dogs
Introduction of mongoose as bio control
Forest clearance

17

How many species of moon rat and hedgehog exist ?

24 species

18

What are the spines of a hedgehog made from ?

They are modified hairs
Contraction of muscles at the base enable erection of spines

19

Give the disadvantages of spines to hedgehogs

Unable to effectively groom- covered in parasites.
Can be eaten by badgers and owls.

20

Temperate species of hedgehog are Heterothermic,
Explain this.

Mirror the environmental conditions
Reduce oxygen requirement to 2% of active level
Reduce heart rate 250bpm to 10bpm

21

How many species of moles and desmans exist ?

42 species,
40 moles
2 desmans

22

Give the main habitat niches of moles and desmans.

Moles- subterranean
Desmans- aquatic

23

Why do moles tunnel ?

To enable worms and invertebrates to fall into the tunnels and be consumed

24

What does it say about the soil content if the mole tunnels are larger ?

The soil content is poor

25

Describe the sensory organs of moles.

Poor vision
Eimers organs (sensory) on muzzles
Vibrissae (whiskers) on muzzles, tails and legs of desmans.

26

Give an example of a vey well adapted mole

Star nosed mole
Well adapted nose for feeling.
Can smell under water, using bubbles.