Flashcards in Chiroptera Deck (63)
What group of organisms are found within the order Chiroptera ?
Give the distribution of bats across the globe.
Found across most of the world
Species rich near the equator.
State how many species have currently been described.
Give the 2 new suborders of the Chiroptera
What is contained in the new sub order Yinpterochrioptera.
Pteropodidae, horseshoe bats and relatives
List some key characteristics of species in the Yinpterochiroptera
Big eyes, small ears
Overall, do not echolocate
(1.5 kg wingspan 1.7m)
What is unusual about the genus Rousettus, in Yinpterochiroptera ?
It uses echolocation, by clicking its tongue against the side of its mouth.
What is contained in the new suborder Yangochiroptera.
Remainder of the Microchiroptera
List some key characteristics of the species in the Yangochiroptera
Bumble bee bat- 2g
Laryngeal echolocation for orientation and prey detection/
Bats are paraphyletic, true or false ?
Clade consists of all ancestral species and descendants.
There are many theories surrounding echolocation in bats, State one of them.
Echolocation was present in early bats but was later lost in the Pteropodidae. (Yinpterochrioptera)
What is the date of the first bat fossils.
55 million years ago
What in these early fossils of bats suggests that these ancestors used echolocation ?
Well developed Cochlea structure
The fossil Onychonycteris finneyi had claws on all digits, why is this ?
Enabled this organism to climb up trees, Crucial feature for the movement from terrestrial living.
Over time, evolved to one thumb claw.
Why did echolocation develop ?
As a means of flight orientation and prey capture.
The wing is a modification of....
The pendactyl limb
Bats are not the only mammals capable of powered flight
True or false ?
False, Sugar gliders can also fly but this is not powered.
What does a bats wing shape determine ?
Flight speed and manoeuvrability
Describe the wing adaptions of a fast flying bat and explain why this effects where they hunt
Long narrow wings
Limited drag on wind
High wing loading
But limited Manoeuvrability
Need large space to hut
Describe the wing adaptions of a bat species which hunts in a forest and explain how this effects speed.
Low aspect ratio
Low wing loading
Good Manoeuvrability to hunt in a small space.
But Slow flight
What is wing loading ?
Weight to wing area ratio.
What is the main diet of bats ?
70% are insectivorous
How are bats able to detect small objects via echolocation ?
Use high frequencies, giving short wavelengths which can detect insects.
How do bats capture prey once they have detected it via echolocation ?
Catch prey in flight,
Wings and tail membranes help increase the capture area
How have insects evolved to counter the accuracy of bat echolocation ?
Evolution of ears sensitive to sound
If the echolocation of the bat is low, how will the insect avoid capture ?
Will simply turn in the opposite direction
If the echolocation of the bath is high, how will the insect avoid capture ?
Will power spiral out of the flight path to avoid detection
On what surface is echolocation ineffective on ?
How do gleaning species capture prey ?
Have large ears to hear prey generated sounds (wing beat)
Will fly close to the ground and grab prey