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PHI 111: Philosophy > PHI 111-Test 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in PHI 111-Test 1 Deck (51)
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1

What is philosophy?

Love of wisdom

2

Why should we care about philosophy?

To enrich lives and our understanding of the world; understanding and to confront deeper questions of world mad life

3

What are the qualities of critically thinking?

Open-minded, Knowledgeable, Mentally, active, Curious, Independent thinkers, Skilled discussants, Insightful, Self-aware, Creative, Passionate

4

What is "having" a philosophy?

A collection of beliefs (world and life view) used to guide his/her thoughts and actions

5

What is doing philosophy?

Thinking critically and examining one's collection of beliefs (world and life view).

6

What were Bertrand Russell's thoughts on the value of philosophy?

Everything has value; Examining one's life and tackling the questions philosophy brings up

7

What is a premise?

Statement(s) that support a conclusion

8

What is a conclusion?

Statement that receives support from premises

9

What type of argument moves from a specific premise to a general conclusion?

Inductive argument

10

What are deductive arguments?

Statements that move from a general premise to a specific conclusion

11

What are the branches of philosophy?

Metaphysics, Epistemology, Ethics, Political and social, Aesthetics, Logic

12

What is the study of the ultimate characteristics of reality/experience?

Metaphysics

13

________is the study of knowledge...examples: how do we know what we know and why do we even know anything at all

Epistemology

14

What are ethics?

The study of moral values and principles

15

_______________ is the study of social values and political forms of government.

Political and social philosophy

16

What are aesthetics?

The study of beauty, art, and taste

17

______________seeks to establish the rules of correct reasoning, clear understanding, and arguments.

Logic

18

What is irony?

Form of rhetoric that has at least two conflicting meanings

19

What is dialectic?

Dynamic exchange or method of contradiction

20

What method uses dynamic questions and intellectual analysis?

The Socratic Method

21

What are the types of fallacies?

False generalization and
Causal Relevance

22

Which fallacy describes a situation when someone "jumps to conclusions" too soon/quickly?

False generalization

23

What is causal fallacies?

The state of attributing causes to events and situations

24

What are the fallacies of relevance?

Arguments that appeal to factors that have little or nothing to do with the argument being offered

25

What did the Pre-socratics say?

If the gods can't agree then how do we know the answer was true?

26

What did Thales believe?

That the primal element of the universe was water

27

Who suggested that the primal element of the universe was air?

Anaximander

28

What did Heraclitus believe?

That the primal element of the universe was fire because "all change"

29

Who believed that the world of change is an illusion and that reality is unchanging and eternal?

Parmenides

30

What were some of the core teachings of Socrates?

1) The unexamined life is not worth living.
2) Truth lies within each of us. 3) We should strive for excellence in all areas of life. 4) No one knowingly does evil. 5) It is better to suffer wickedness than to commit it