Flashcards in PHI 111-Test 1 Deck (51)
What is philosophy?
Love of wisdom
Why should we care about philosophy?
To enrich lives and our understanding of the world; understanding and to confront deeper questions of world mad life
What are the qualities of critically thinking?
Open-minded, Knowledgeable, Mentally, active, Curious, Independent thinkers, Skilled discussants, Insightful, Self-aware, Creative, Passionate
What is "having" a philosophy?
A collection of beliefs (world and life view) used to guide his/her thoughts and actions
What is doing philosophy?
Thinking critically and examining one's collection of beliefs (world and life view).
What were Bertrand Russell's thoughts on the value of philosophy?
Everything has value; Examining one's life and tackling the questions philosophy brings up
What is a premise?
Statement(s) that support a conclusion
What is a conclusion?
Statement that receives support from premises
What type of argument moves from a specific premise to a general conclusion?
What are deductive arguments?
Statements that move from a general premise to a specific conclusion
What are the branches of philosophy?
Metaphysics, Epistemology, Ethics, Political and social, Aesthetics, Logic
What is the study of the ultimate characteristics of reality/experience?
________is the study of knowledge...examples: how do we know what we know and why do we even know anything at all
What are ethics?
The study of moral values and principles
_______________ is the study of social values and political forms of government.
Political and social philosophy
What are aesthetics?
The study of beauty, art, and taste
______________seeks to establish the rules of correct reasoning, clear understanding, and arguments.
What is irony?
Form of rhetoric that has at least two conflicting meanings
What is dialectic?
Dynamic exchange or method of contradiction
What method uses dynamic questions and intellectual analysis?
The Socratic Method
What are the types of fallacies?
False generalization and
Which fallacy describes a situation when someone "jumps to conclusions" too soon/quickly?
What is causal fallacies?
The state of attributing causes to events and situations
What are the fallacies of relevance?
Arguments that appeal to factors that have little or nothing to do with the argument being offered
What did the Pre-socratics say?
If the gods can't agree then how do we know the answer was true?
What did Thales believe?
That the primal element of the universe was water
Who suggested that the primal element of the universe was air?
What did Heraclitus believe?
That the primal element of the universe was fire because "all change"
Who believed that the world of change is an illusion and that reality is unchanging and eternal?