List 8 red flag symptoms for respiratory conditions
Chest pain/pain on breathing
Chronic cough >3 weeks
- Weight loss
- Purulent (pussy) sputum
Haemoptysis (coughing blood)
What 3 things should be recommended for patients with respiratory diseases who have a cold?
- Honey and lemon
- Steam inhalation
What should asthmatics avoid when they have a cold?
What should be avoided by patients with respiratory diseases who have a cold?
Respiratory depressants - no cough suppressants or antihistamines
What medication can patients with COPD take if they suffer from a strain or sprain?
- Can use NSAIDs if no other cautions/contra-indications
What medications can asthmatics take if they suffer from a strain or sprain?
Co-codamol if respiratory function is okay
- No NSAIDs
What should asthmatics not use for head lice?
Alcoholic solutions - evaporating alcohol can irritate lungs and cause wheezing
What is it recommended that asthmatics should use for head lice?
Aqueous solutions - don't irritate skin or lungs e.g. Hedrin`
What is it recommended that patients with RDs should take for hayfever?
Non-sedating antihistamine e.g. cetirizine, loratidine
Topical preparations e.g. nasal corticosteroids, eye drops
What kind of antihistamine is it not recommended for patients with RDs to take for hayfever?
Sedating antihistamines - not recommended in respiratory conditions due to anticholinergic effects (block action of ACh)
Name 6 conditions respiratory patients may present with
What could tremor/palpitations be caused by in patients with RDs?
Salbutamol and theophylline (treat and prevent wheezing)
- Review treatment
What could tiredness be caused by in patients with RDs?
Deterioration in COPD - lack of oxygen
What could nausea be caused by in patients with RDs?
Side effects of drugs e.g. theophylline
What could heartburn be caused by in patients with RDs?
Oral prednisalone or theophylline
- Treat with antacid/omeprazole
What could insomnia be caused by in patients with RDs?
Theophylline - check plasma levels
What could thrush be caused by in patients with RDs?
- Effects of antibiotics and steroids
- Treat with miconazole oral gel or fluconazole
List 3 OTC preparations that theophylline interacts with
Cimetidine - treating and preventing ulcers in the stomach/small intestine, GORD
Fluconazole - treat fungal and yeast infections
- St John's Wort
How does theophylline interact with cimetidine and fluconazole?
Causes increased levels of theophylline
How does theophylline interact with St John's Wort?
Decreased levels of theophylline
Explain the asthma action plan (SMILE)P
- Stop smoking
- Inhaler technique
Pharmacotherapy (therapy using pharmaceutical drugs)
Why should sufferers of respiratory diseases stop smoking?
- Smokers respond less to asthma treatment
Reduces rate of decline of COPD and improves survival rate
Why are smokers at greater risk of theophylline toxicity?
Smokers require higher doses of theophylline so there is an increase in serum theophylline concentrations, and possibly toxicity
- Long-acting beta agonists
Bronchodilator medication, opens airways in lungs by relaxing smooth muscle around airways
Long-term control medication
What does ICS stand for?
How do ICSs work?
Act locally in the lungs to inhibit the inflammatory process which causes asthma
What should LABAs also be prescribed in conjunction with?
ICSs, ideally in a single inhaler
Who should ICSs always be prescribed for?
For all symptomatic people with asthma
What group of patients should never be prescribed ICSs as monotherapy?
Name a lifestyle change that can improve a COPD sufferer's quality of life