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Flashcards in Pharma - Toxicities & Side Effects Deck (115)
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1

What is the antidote for acetaminophen overdose?

N-acetylcysteine

2

What are the two treatments for salicylate overdose?

Alkalinization of urine and dialysis if necessary

3

What compound is used to alkalinize urine?

NaHCO3; weak acids are better excreted when the urine is alkaline

4

What is the treatment for amphetamine overdose?

NH4Cl

5

Amphetamines are _____ (acidic/basic); therefore, overdose is treated with _____ (NH4Cl/NaHCO3) to _____ (acidify/alkalinize) the urine.

Basic; NH4Cl; acidify

6

What are the two antidotes for anticholinesterase toxicity?

Atropine to block cholinergic receptors and pralidoxime to regenerate acetylcholinesterase

7

What are the antidotes for organophosphate poisoning?

Atropine and pralidoxime; organophosphates inhibit acetylcholinesterase

8

What is the antidote for toxicity caused by anticholinergic agents?

Physostigmine; it inhibits acetylcholinesterase, increasing the available acetylcholine to overcome anticholinergic toxicity

9

Physostigmine is the antidote for toxicity caused by what two types of agents?

Antimuscarinic agents and anticholinergic agents

10

What is the antidote for β-blocker toxicity?

Glucagon

11

What are five treatments for digitalis toxicity?

Stop the medication; normalize the potassium level; give the patient lidocaine; give the patient anti-digoxigenin Fab fragments; give the patient magnesium

12

What is the antidote for iron toxicity?

Deferoxamine, a chelating agent

13

What are four treatments for lead poisoning?

Edetate calcium disodium, dimercaprol, succimer, and penicillamine

14

Penicillamine is the antidote for toxicity caused by what substances?

Copper, arsenic, gold

15

What are three treatments for arsenic poisoning?

Dimercaprol, succimer, penicillamine

16

What are two treatments for mercury poisoning?

Dimercaprol and succimer

17

What are three treatments for gold poisoning?

Dimercaprol, succimer, penicillamine

18

Dimercaprol and succimer are the antidotes for toxicity caused by what substances?

Mercury, arsenic, gold

19

The combination of thiosulfate and nitrite is the antidote for toxicity caused by what substance?

Cyanide

20

Hydroxocobalamin is the antidote for toxicity caused by what substance?

Cyanide

21

What are the treatments for cyanide poisoning?

Hydroxocobalamin, or a combination of nitrite and thiosulfate

22

What is the treatment for methemoglobinemia?

Methylene blue, vitamin C

23

Methylene blue is used to treat elevated serum levels of what substance?

Methemoglobin

24

What are the treatments for carbon monoxide poisoning?

100% oxygen and hyperbaric oxygen

25

What are the treatments for methanol and ethylene glycol (antifreeze) poisoning?

Ethanol, dialysis, and fomepizole

26

Fomepizole is an antidote for toxicity caused by what substances?

Methanol, ethylene glycol

27

What are the antidotes for opioid overdose?

Naloxone or naltrexone

28

Naloxone is the antidote for overdose of what substance?

Opioids

29

What is the antidote for benzodiazepine overdose?

Flumazenil; it reduces the action of benzodiazepines at γ-aminobutyric acid receptors

30

Flumazenil is the antidote for overdose of what substance?

Benzodiazepines