Pharma - Autonomic Drugs (Part 1) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pharma - Autonomic Drugs (Part 1) Deck (127)
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1

From which regions of the central nervous system do parasympathetic nerves originate?

Cranial and sacral regions

2

From which regions of the central nervous system do sympathetic nerves originate?

Thoracic and lumbar regions

3

What types of nerves arise from the spinal cord and innervate skeletal muscle directly?

Somatic nerves

4

How many neurons are involved in parasympathetic transmission from the spinal cord to the target organ?

Two

5

True or False? Craniosacral parasympathetic axons synapse on neurons in the peripheral ganglia.

True

6

What neurotransmitter mediates parasympathetic nervous system function?

Acetylcholine

7

What neurotransmitter receptor mediates parasympathetic nervous system function at the peripheral ganglia?

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

8

What neurotransmitter receptor mediates parasympathetic tone in the cardiac muscle?

Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (specifically, M2)

9

What neurotransmitter receptor mediates parasympathetic tone in the smooth muscle?

Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (specifically, M3)

10

What neurotransmitter receptor mediates parasympathetic tone in the glandular cells?

Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (specifically, M1 and M3)

11

Somatic nerves that arise from the spine innervate skeletal muscle. What neurotransmitter receptor, which is located on skeletal muscle, receives this input?

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

12

How many neurons are involved in sympathetic transmission from the spinal cord to the target organ?

Two

13

Where is the first synapse after the spinal cord in sympathetic innervation of an organ?

Preganglionic sympathetic axons synapse on neurons in the paravertebral ganglia

14

True or False? Preganglionic sympathetic axons synapse on neurons in the peripheral ganglia.

False; preganglionic sympathetic axons synapse on neurons in the paravertebral ganglia

15

At the paravertebral ganglia, the neurotransmitter _____ acts on _____ receptors to mediate sympathetic nervous system function.

Acetylcholine; nicotinic acetylcholine

16

What neurotransmitter mediates sympathetic nervous system function at the sweat glands?

Acetylcholine

17

What neurotransmitter receptor mediates sympathetic nervous system function at the sweat glands?

Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors

18

What neurotransmitter mediates sympathetic tone in the cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, and glandular cells?

Norepinephrine

19

What are four cell types in which α- and β-adrenergic receptors mediate sympathetic tone?

Cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, glandular cells, and terminal ends of neurons

20

What neurotransmitter mediates sympathetic tone in the renal vascular smooth muscle?

Dopamine

21

What neurotransmitter receptor mediates sympathetic tone in the renal vascular smooth muscle?

D1 receptors

22

What two substances are released into the blood from the adrenal medulla after the activation of the sympathetic nervous system?

Epinephrine and norepinephrine

23

How many synapses are involved in activation of the adrenal medulla?

One; the adrenal medulla releases epinephrine and norepinephrine into the blood

24

Are nicotinic acetylcholine receptors ligand-gated sodium-potassium channels or G-protein coupled receptors?

Nicotinic receptors are ligand gated sodium-potassium channels

25

Are muscarinic acetylcholine receptors ligand-gated sodium-potassium channels or G-protein-coupled receptors?

Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors are G-protein-coupled receptors that act through second messengers

26

To what class of G-proteins are α1-receptors linked?

q

27

To what class of G-proteins are α2-receptors linked?

i

28

To what class of G-proteins are β1-receptors linked?

s

29

To what class of G-proteins are β2-receptors linked?

s

30

To what class of G-proteins are M1-receptors linked?

q