Pharma - Autonomic Drugs (Part 2) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pharma - Autonomic Drugs (Part 2) Deck (93)
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1

According to the mnemonic DUMBBELSS, what four major physiologic processes are blocked by atropine?

Diarrhea, Urination, Miosis, Bronchospasm, Bradycardia, Excitation of skeletal muscle, Lacrimation, Sweating, and Salivation

2

True or False? Increased body temperature is a sign of atropine toxicity.

True (ie, "hot as a hare")

3

True or False? Slower heart rate is a sign of atropine toxicity.

False; heart rate would be increased

4

True or False? Dry mouth is a sign of atropine toxicity.

True (ie, "dry as a bone")

5

True or False? Dry, flushed skin is a sign of atropine toxicity.

True (ie, "dry as a bone, red as a beet")

6

True or False? Cycloplegia is a sign of atropine toxicity.

True (ie, "blind as a bat")

7

True or False? Diarrhea is a sign of atropine toxicity.

False; constipation is a sign of atropine toxicity

8

True or False? Disorientation is a sign of atropine toxicity.

True (ie, "mad as a hatter")

9

Which two adverse effects of atropine are more common in elderly patients?

Urinary retention and acute angle closure glaucoma

10

True or False? Atropine toxicity can cause urinary incontinence.

False; atropine toxicity can cause urinary retention in men with prostatic hypertrophy

11

True or False? Atropine toxicity can cause fecal incontinence.

False; atropine toxicity causes constipation, not fecal incontinence

12

What type of acetylcholine receptors does hexamethonium antagonize?

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

13

What effect does hexamethonium have on heart rate?

It can prevent bradycardia in response to increased blood pressure when pressors are given

14

Name four toxicities of hexamethonium.

Severe orthostatic hypotension, blurred vision, constipation, sexual dysfunction

15

Name 11 drugs that act as direct sympathomimetics.

Isoproterenol, dobutamine, phenylephrine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine, albuterol, terbutaline, ritodrine, metaproterenol, and salmeterol

16

Which types of receptors are activated by epinephrine?

α1-, α2-, β1-, and β2-receptors

17

Low doses of epinephrine are selective for _____ (α1, α2, β1, β2) adrenergic receptors.

β1

18

Which types of receptors are activated by norepinephrine?

α1- and α2-; β1-receptors (with lower affinity)

19

Does norepinephrine have greater affinity for α-adrenergic receptors or β1-receptors?

α-Adrenergic receptors

20

Isoproterenol is an agonist for which receptors?

β1- and β2-receptors equally

21

Which types of receptors does dopamine activate, and how strongly does it activate them relative to one another?

D1 = D2 receptors > β-receptors > α-receptors

22

Dopamine is an agonist for which receptors?

β1- and β2-receptors

23

Dopamine is _____ (ionotropic/not ionotropic) and _____ (chronotropic/not chronotropic), while dobutamine is _____ (ionotropic/not ionotropic) and _____ (chronotropic/not chronotropic).

Ionotropic; chronotropic; ionotropic; not chronotropic

24

Phenylephrine is an agonist for which receptors?

α1-receptors > α2-receptors

25

Metaproterenol, albuterol, salmeterol, and terbutaline are agonists for which receptors?

β2-receptors > β1-receptors

26

Ritodrine acts on _____ (α1, α2, β1, β2)-adrenergic receptors.

β2

27

What are the clinical applications of epinephrine?

Anaphylaxis, open-angle glaucoma, asthma, hypotension

28

What effect does norepinephrine have on renal perfusion?

It decreases renal perfusion

29

What is the clinical application for isoproterenol?

Atrioventricular block

30

What role does dopamine have in treating shock?

Increases blood pressure while maintaining renal perfusion