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Flashcards in Pain (nociception) Deck (52)
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1

what is the somatosensation of pain called

nociception

2

examples of other somatosensations

touch

temperature

proprioception

pressure

3

what does neurophysiology of pain involve?

(3 STEPS)

1- initiation 2- propagation 3- perception

4

what causes initiation of pain sensation

activation/depolarization of pain receptors at the site of injury

5

where does perception of painful stimuli take place

somatosensory, emotional, and cognitive regions of the brain

6

describe propagation of pain sensation

depolarization along nerves to spinal cord (switch over in spinal cord:contralateral) and then ascend up spinal cord to thalamus which relays the information to the somatosensory, emotional, and cognitive regions of the brain

7

how does anesthesia and pain medications work in reference to the ascending pain pathway

block the ascending pain pathway at various locations so the pain sensation does not reach the brain

8

Dorsal column-medial lemniscal pathway (DCML) does what sensations

carries the sensory modalities of fine touch (tactile sensation), vibration, and proprioception

9

The anterior spinothalamic tract of the anterolateral system does what sensations

Anterior spinothalamic tract – carries the sensory modalities of crude touch and pressure.

10

The lateral spinothalamic tract of the anterolateral system does what sensations

Lateral spinothalamic tract – carries the sensory modalities of pain and temperature.

11

why is nociceptive fibers being slow adapting good

because it is a protective mechanism you want the pain signal to keep firing so as to learn painful stimuli and not forget the tac in your foot etc

12

where does the lateral spinothalamic tract cross over

spinal cord

13

what are the two pain fibers of the ascending pain pathway

A-delta fibers and C fibers

14

what chemical stimulates A-delta fibers

glutamate

15

what chemical stimulates C fibers

mostly substance P but some glutamate

16

What binds to receptors of the A-delta and C fibers that leads to sensitization and exacerbation

prostaglandins

17

which fiber A-delta or C fibers has faster conduction and why

A-delta fibers be myelinated vs C fibers which are unmyelinated

18

what "kind" of pain does A-delta fibers elicit

sharp, stinging, intense pain (myelinated fast fibers)

19

what "kind" of pain does C fibers elicit

dull, achy, chronic, burning, less intense pain (unmyelinated slow fibers)

20

what are the three types of pain

nociceptive

inflammatory

neuropathic

21

What is nociceptive pain defined by

external irritating or harmful stimulus like heat, cold, acid/chemicals, getting hit with hammer or getting a shot

22

what does the transduction of nociceptive pain rely on

activation of distinct TRP channels and other peripheral nocireceptors

23

what is the main TRP channel to know

TRPV1 (activated by heat or acid/chemicals like capsaicin)

24

pain treatment options for nociceptive pain

local anesthetics

Cox2 inhibitors

opioids/opiates

25

what does TRP stand for

transient receptor potential

26

what activates TRP channels

heat or capsaicin

27

what is capsaicin

compound found in hot peppers that can bind to TRP receptors/channels and elicit sensations of pain

28

how can capsaicin be used for pain management

use capsaicin to target TRP channels for low long activation which then leads to desensitization and management of pain

29

what causes inflammatory pain

tissue or internal organ damage that causes a local or systemic immune response (i.e. release of inflammatory mediators by immune cells)

30

how do inflammatory mediators stimulate pain transduction

they stimulate their respective receptors on nociceptive fibers