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Flashcards in Neurotransmitters Deck (51)
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1

define biogenic amines

biogenic substance with one or more amine groups; a basic nitrogenous compound formed by decarboxylation of an amino acid or by amination or transamination of an aldehyde or ketone

2

examples of biogenic amines

serotonin acetylcholine norepinephrine

3

Who did the experiments with frogs to discover neurotransmitters (NTs)?

Otto Loewi

4

what makes a neurotransmitter excitatory or inhibitory

Receptor through which NT acts (NOT transmitter itself)

5

what NTs are considered small molecules

biogenic amines amino acids

6

where are biogenic amines synthesized

nerve terminal

7

what are the biogenic amines

acetylcholine dopamine serotonin histamine norepinephrine epinephrine

8

which of the biogenic amines are also catecholamines

epinephrine norepinephrine dopamine

9

what are the amino acids

GABA glutamate aspartate glycine

10

what NTs are considered large molecules

peptides

11

what are the peptides

opioid family: enkephalin endorphin dynorphin

12

where are peptides synthesized

made in cell body from precursor peptides and then shipped to terminals

13

what are peptides often co-released with

a classical transmitter

14

other examples of NTs AKA co-factors AKA second messengers

NO CO adenosine eicosanoids taurine tryptamine prostaglandins neuroactive steroids

15

what NTs are typically excitatory in the brain

glutamate aspartate small percentage ACh

16

what is the direction of projections for glutamate

descending

17

role of glutamate in CNS function

majority of fast synaptic transmission

18

which disease results from too much glutamatergic transmission

Epilepsy

19

which disease results from neurotoxicity via subtype of glutamate receptor

Huntington's

20

which diseases are due to problems with glutamate

epilepsy huntington's

21

what NTs are typically inhibitory in the brain

GABA (often but not always) dopamine

22

what is the direction of projections for GABA

diffuse

23

what diseases result from too low activity of GABA

Epilepsy Huntington's Anxiety

24

what direction of projections for dopamine

ascending

25

disease where not enough dopamine

Parkinsons

26

disease where too much dopamine

Schizophrenia

27

anatomy for Parkinsons

cell bodies in substantial nigra project to striatum and these die/degenerate in parkinsons

28

what is used as treatment of Parkinsons

L-dopa

29

anatomy for Schizophrenia

cell bodies in ventral tegmental area project to nucleus accumbens and these are hyperactive in schizophrenia

path to pre-frontal cortex is underreactive

30

what is the nucleus accumbent important for besides Schizophrenia

addiction