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Flashcards in Linking Words / Phrases Deck (31)
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To make contrasting points

... yet / however / nevertheless / but / even so / still / nonetheless ... Although / Even though / Regardless of the fact that / In spite of the fact that / Despite the fact that / While ...

It is a well-known fact that wearing seat belts saves lives;
yet, large numbers of drivers refuse to wear them. Although wearing seat belts is known to save lives, large number of drivers refuse to wear them.


To express balance (the other side of the argument)

Opponents of ... argue / claim / believe that ...
While it is true to say that ..., in fact ...
The fact that ... contradicts the belief / idea that ...

Opponents of animal testing argue, experiments can be conducted in other ways without losing their efficacy.
While it is true to say that the government is investigating in retraining schemes, in fact the unemployment rate is still high.
The fact that there are still no recycling bins in my area contradicts the belief the town council care about environment.


Negative addition

Neither ... nor ...
... nor / neither ...
... either.

Neither my sister nor my brother have ever traveled abroad.
My sister has never traveled abroad; nor has my brother.
My sister has never traveled abroad, and my brother hasn't either.


To express exception

... apart from / but / except (for)

He has visited every European country apart from one.


To clarify/rephrase

In other words / That is to say / To put it another way ...

In other words, if you treat people with respect they are far more likely to treat you with respect.


To express similarity

... similarly / likewise / in the same way ...

Making a list before you go shopping is important if you want to save money; similarly, buying products that are on sale also helps you to stay within your budget.


To give an alternative

either / On the other hand / Alternatively

We could (either) go to Malta or Tunisia.
We could go to Malta. On the other hand we could go to Tunisia.


To express condition

... on condition that / providing (that) / as long as ...
... only if ...
In the event of an ... / In the event that, if ... / In case of ...
... whether ... or not?
... otherwise, or (else) ...

You may use this room on condition that you keep quiet. You may use this room only if you keep quiet.
In the event of an emergency, call security.
In case of emergency, call security.
Do you happen to know whether Sandra works at home or not?
Get your tickets early otherwise you might not get in.


To express consequence

... consequently / as a result ...
... if so, ..., if not / otherwise, ...

The sun is getting increasingly more dangerous; consequently I never go out between midday and three.
I'm hoping to get back today; if so, I'll come see you, if not, I'll give you a call.


To conclude

Finally / Lastly / All in all / Taking everything into account (consideration), On the whole, All things considered / In conclusion / On balance / For the above mentioned reasons / To sum up...

Finally, it is felt that you would not be suitable for the position.



... when / whenever / before / after ...
... until / till ...
... since ...
... as / while ...
... now that ...

The green light comes on when humidity reaches 90%.
Wait until the crust is a golden brown before removing the pie.
There has been no news of the child since five o'clock yesterday evening.
She spotted them as she was getting on the bus. She saw her while she was waiting for a taxi.
I never see her now that she has moved to the city.



... regarding / concerning ...
... with respect / regard / reference to ...
... in regard / reference to ...

I am writing to request more information regarding the position advertised in Sunday's edition of The Times.
I am writing with respect to the availability of product no. 127492.



in short / Briefly / To put it briefly ...

In short, I've never met a nicer person!


Personal opinion

In my opinion / In my view / To my mind / To my way of thinking / I am convinced that / It is my firm belief that / I am inclined to believe that / It seems to me that / As far as I am concerned / I think that ...

In my opinion our efforts will meet with success.


To list advantages and disadvantages

One advantage of / Another advantage of / One other advantage of / A further advantage of / The main advantage of / The greatest advantage of / The first advantage of ...
One disadvantage of / Another disadvantage of / One other disadvantage of / A further disadvantage of / The main disadvantage of / The greatest disadvantage of / The first disadvantage of

The main advantage of having a pet is that they are fantastic company.
One disadvantage of having a pet is that they need a lot of care.


To list points

Firstly / First of all / In the first place / Secondly / Thirdly / Finally / To start with / To begin with

Firstly we have to make both sides feel comfortable before talks can continue.


To list points in a begining

First / To start with / To begin with / First of all

First, make sure you have all the necessary ingredients.


To list points in a continuing

Secondly / After this / After that / Afterwards / Then / Next

Next, mix all the ingredients in a bowl.


To list points in a concluding

Finally / Lastly / Last but not least

Finally, bake the cake in a medium oven.


To add more points to the same topic

What is more / Furthermore / Apart from this / Apart from that / In addition (to this) / Moreover / Besides (this) / ... not to mention the fact that
What is more, the Internet has made a major impact on education, which will greatly influence the way we teach and learn.

Not only ..., but ... also ...
Not only has the Internet made a major impact on education, but it will also greatly influence the way we teach and learn.

... both ... and ...
The Internet is both having a major impact on education and is something that will influence the way we tech and learn.


To refer to other sources

With reference to / According to
According to recent statistics, the number of unemployed is increasing.


To express cause

... because / owing the fact that / due to the fact that / on the grounds that / since / as ...
The house was demolished as they are going to build a block of flats there.

In view of / Because of / Owing to ...
Owing to the fact that they are going to build a block of flats there, the house was demolished.

for this reason ...
They are going to build a block of house there; for this reason, the house was demolished

Seeing that ...
Seen that they are going to build a block of flats there, the house was demolished.


To express effect

thus / therefore / so / consequently / as a result / as a consequence
Her health was failing and she wanted more time with her family; thus she decided to retire.


To express purpose

... so that ...
She quit her job, so that she could travel around the world

... so as to / in order to ...
She quit her job, in order to travel around the world.

... with the purpose of / with the intention of ...
I bought a new bicycle with the purpose of cycling to work in the mornings.


To emphasis a point

Indeed / Naturally / Clearly / Obviously / Of course / Needless to say ...
Needless to say, the extent of his talent guaranteed that he would be a great actor.


To express reality

It is a fact that / In effect / In fact / As a matter of fact / The fact of the matter is (that) / Actually / In practice / Indeed ...
Actually, failing to watch your diet will lead to your gaining weight.


To give examples

For instance / For example ...
For example, by providing flexible working hours, businesses can encourage employees to be more productive.

... such as / like ...
By providing incentives such as flexible working hours, businesses can encourage employees to be more productive.

... particularly / in particular / especially ...
If employees are to be more productive, then the provision of incentives, especially flexible working hours, is essential.


To make general the statements

As a (general) rule / By and large / Generally / In general / On the whole ...
On the whole, the more decisions you let a child make on his own, the more self-sufficient he will be.


To make partially true statements

Up to a point / To a certain extent / To a certain degree / To some extent / To some degree / In a sense / In a way / To a limited extent ...
To limited extent, this is true but serious athletes will always need the support of their coach and team-mates.


To express limited knowladge

To the best of my knowledge / As far as I know ...
As far as I know, Tony has already sent the letters.