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Flashcards in Lesson 4A (Part 2) Deck (29)
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1

What is needed for a transabdominal US scan of the prostate?

A distended urinary bladder

2

What is the frequency for a transabdominal US scan of the prostate?

3-5 MHz
- curved linear array
- vector array

3

When is an endorectal scan of the prostate needed?

When high resolution is required

4

What is the frequency for a endorectal US scan of the prostate?

5-9 MHz
- intracavity

5

What are the clinical indications for a prostate gland? (12)

1. Urinary symptoms
2. Nocturia
3. Dysuria
4. Decrease force of urinary stream
5. Terminal dribble
6. Hematuria
- infertility work-up
7. Hematospermia
8. Oligospermia
9. Abnormal biochemistry 10. Elevated PSA
11. Abnormal digital rectal exam
- DRE
12. Pain
- lower back
- pelvis
- upper thighs
- perineum

6

What is the normal appearance of the prostate?

Homogeneous
- uniform echo pattern

7

What is the normal appearance of the seminal vesicles?

Hypoechoic compared to rest of prostate

8

What is the normal appearance of the central and peripheral zone? (2)

1. Homogeneous
2. Hypoechoic
- area in posterior prostate

9

What is the normal appearance of the transition zone?

Moderately hypoechoic

10

What are 5 endorectal indications for a prostate scan?

1. Elevated PSA levels
2. Palpable nodules
3. Biopsy guidance
4. Prostate abscess
5. Male infertility

11

TRUS

Transrectal Ultrasound

12

DRE

Digital rectal examination

13

Digital rectal examination

A doctor inserts a lubricated, gloved finger into the rectum and feels the prostate`

14

What can a DRE sometimes detect? (3)

1. An enlarged prostate
2. Lumps or nodules of prostate cancer
3. Tenderness from prostatitis

15

PSA

Prostate specific antigen

16

Prostate specific antigen

The prostate makes a protein called PSA, which can be measured by a blood test

17

What does it mean if PSA is elevated?

Prostate cancer is more likely
- not confirmed though

18

What does an enlarged prostate potentially indicate?

High PSA

19

Prostate US (transrectal US)

An ultrasound probe is inserted into the rectum, bringing it close to the prostate

20

What is often done with US to conform prostate cancer?

Biopsy

21

Prostate biopsy

A needle is inserted into the prostate to take tissue out to check for prostate cancer
- this is usually done through the rectum

22

What kind of test is done to rule out prostate cancer?

PSA

23

What PSA levels are considered normal?

0-4

24

What PSA levels are considered suspicious?

4-10

25

What PSA levels are considered a possible indicator of prostate cancer?

Higher than 10

26

What shape do the seminal vesicles demonstrate on US?

Bowtie sign

27

What are other possible conditions the can cause a rise in PSA? (5)

1. A larger prostate
2. Prostate infection
- prostatitis
3. Urinary tract infection
4. Recent tests on your bladder (cystoscopy) or prostate (biopsy)
5. Catheter tube recently placed into your bladder to drain urine

28

What is seen in aging male prostates? (2)

1. Calcification
2. Chronic inflammation

29

What can calcification be confused with on US?

The urethra