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Flashcards in Lesson 3C (Part 4) Deck (31)
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1

What are adenomas primarily made of?

Glandular elements

2

What do adenomas secrete?

Lactation

3

How are adenomas seen on US? (4)

1. Oval
2. Circumscribed solid mass
3. Areas of increased echogenicity
4. Prominent vascularity

4

WHat are phylloide tumours also called?

Phyllodes

5

What kind of appearance are phyllodes very similar to?

Fibroadenomas
- has cystic spaces

6

How do phyllodes normally grow?

Rapidly

7

What is the size of a phyllodes?

Greater than 5cm

8

What age group are phyllodes more common?

40 year old +

9

What is the most common breast sarcoma?

Phylloides tumours

10

What is recommended with phylloide tumours?

Core biopsy
- it is poorly differentiated by fine needle biopsy

11

Hamartoma

Mass made of varying amounts of normal or dysplastic fibrous, epithelial, and fatty breast tissues

12

Where do you find hamartomas?

Within the mammary zone

13

How do hamartomas appear on US? (3)

1. Circumscribed oval mass
2. Mixed echo patterns
3. Thin echogenic pseudocapsule

14

Lipoma

Benign nodule of mature adipose tissue surrounded by a thin connective tissue capsule

15

How do lipomas grow?

Slowly

16

What is the size of lipoma?

2-10 cm

17

How do lipomas appear on US? (3)

1. Smooth walled
2. Thinly encapsualted nodule
3. Isoechoic or hyperechoic to adjacent normal fat

18

Papilloma

Fibrovascular growths within milk ducts behind the nipple

19

What does papilloma refer to?

The milk ducts

20

How do papilloma appear on US? (2)

1. Circumscribed
2. Isoechoic to hypoechoic solid mass

21

Where do you find papilloma?

Subareolar region

22

Who do you find juvenile papillomatosis in?

Young females

23

What do juvenile papillomatosis appear on an US? (4)

1. Focal ill defined
2. Heterogeneous mass
3. Contains several small peripheral cysts
4. Swiss cheese appearance

24

What are risk factors fro breast cancer in women? (12)

1. Advancing age
2. First degree relative with breast cancer
- eg) mom
3. Genetic predisposition
- BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene
4. Early menarche
5. Late menopause
6. Nullipartiy
7. First full term pregnancy after the age of 30
8. Personal history of breast, ovarian or endometrial cancer
9. Obesity/increased BMI
10. High breast tissue density
11. Long term or high dosage of estrogen replacement therapy
12. Prior radiation to breast area
- as in treatment for Hodgkin's disease

25

What are 10 malignant invasive breast diseases?

1. Infiltrating ductal carcinoma
- IDC
2. Infiltrating lobular carcinoma
- ILC
3. Medullary
4. Mucinous
5. Tubular
6. Inflammatory
7. Lymphoma
8. Metastases
9. Multifocal
10. Multicentric

26

What are 3 malignant non invasive breast diseases?

1. DCIS
2. LCIS
3. Pagets

27

Multi focal

Presence of additional malignant lesions within a breast quadrant or within 5cm of the primary tumor

28

What does multifocal indicate?

Spread of cancer via the ducts

29

ROI

Range of interest

30

Multi centric

Coexistent cancers within different quadrants or seperated by more than 5cm within the breast